## Science Chemistry 3

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emilydavis15 Plus on May 11, 2011

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# Science Chemistry 3

 Pressurethe amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
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#### Definitions

Pressure the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
Pascal the SI unit of pressure; equal to the force of 1N exerted over an area of 1 m^2 (symbol pas)
Buoyant force the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a fluid
Viscosity the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow
Gas laws the laws that state the mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity of a gas
Charles' law the initial volume (V1) divided by the initial temperature (T1) is equal to the final volume (V2) divided by the final temperature (T2)
Boyle's law the initial pressure (P1) times the initial volume (V1) is equal to the final pressure (P2) times the final volume (V2)
Gay-Lussac's law the initial pressure (P1) divided by the initial temperature (T1) is equal to the final pressure (P2) divided by the final temperature (T2)
Combined gas law the initial pressure (P1) times the initial volume (V1) divided by the initial temperature (T1) is equal to the final pressure (P2) times the final volume (V2) divided by the final temperature (T2)
Temperature a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Thermometer an instrument that measures and indicates temperature
Absolute zero the temperature at which molecular energy is at a minimum (0K on the Kenlvin scale or -273.15°C on the Celsius scale)
Heat the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures
Thermal scales the average kinetic energy of a molecule in a substance (different in different countries) (Fahrenheit and Celsius are examples)
Thermal conduction the transfer of energy as heat moves through a material
Convection the movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temperature variations
Convection current any movement of matter that results from differences in density
Radiation the energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves
Specific Heat the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1K or 1°C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume
Conductors a material through which energy can be easily transferred as heat (carries heat)
Insulators a material that transfers energy poorly (does not carry heat)
Exothermic energy released as heat (feels hot)
Endothermic energy is absorbed (feels cold)
334 J/g Heat of Fusion (#)
2260 J/g Heat of Vaporization (#)
Alloy a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals

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emilydavis15 Plus