Psychotic disorders

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51 terms

What is psychosis?

Gross impairment of perception of reality and ability to communicate/interact with others

What are common symptoms of psychosis?

Delusions
Hallucinations
Bizarre behavior
Ideas of reference
Paranoia
Disorganized speech
Illogical thinking

What are ideas of reference?

Believing that casual events, remarks, etc refer to onself

What is the definition of schizophrenia?

Fundamental disturbance of personality characterized by distorted thinking:
-Bizarre delusions
-Altered perceptions
-Inappropriate emotional responses

What are diagnostic requisites for schizophrenia diagnosis?

Symptoms that last minimum of at least 6 months
-deterioration noted in functioning at work, school, home or relationships

What is the prodromal phase of schizophrnenia?

Gradual behavior changes
Acting peculiarly
Precedes onset of illness by 1 year

What happens during the acute/ "active" phase?

Development of positive symptoms
-Delusions
Hallucinations

What kind of hallucinations are most common in the active phase?

Auditory

What happens during the residual phase of schizophrenia?

Positive symptoms subside and negative symptoms develop

What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Affective flattening
Inappropriate affect
Apathy
Anhedonia

What are some reasons schizophrenics have a decreased life expectancy?

Meds (CV)
Cigarettes
Suicide

What is schizophreniform disorder?

Identical to schizophrenia, but briefer in duration
-All symptoms last less than 6 months

What are characteristics of individuals with schizophreniform disorder who are likely to recover quickly?

-Developed psychotic symptoms quicks
-Confused or disoriented during the psychotic episode
-Functioned well before the onset of symptoms
-Maintained a normal range of emotions

What is schizoaffective disorder?

Disorder characterized by a combination of symptoms of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder
-Major depression or bipolar

What is a brief psychotic disorder?

Sudden onset of at least one positive symptom of psychosis
-delusions
-hallucinations
-Disorganized speech
-Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior

How long does a brief psychotic disorder last

At least 1 day, less than a month

What precedes a brief psychotic disorder?

Often in response to a severe stressor

Do people with a brief psychotic disorder recover?

Yes, followed by full return to premorbid functioning

What is delusion disorder?

Non-bizarre delusions
-limited overall impairment
-behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre

What is an erotomanic delusion?

Believing a person, usually of a higher status, is in love with them

What is the typical onset of schizophrenia?

Late teen to 20s
(later in females)

what causes schizophrenia?

abnormal neuronal organization in hippocampus

Why might birth in late winter/early spring cause schizophrenia?

Viral illness

If alzheimers is a neurodegenerative disorder, what is schizophrenia?

Neurodevelopmental

when do you hospitalize a patient with schizophrenia?

Suicidal
Homicidal
Severely agitated/ disorganized
Acutely psychotic

Visual hallucinations are 1 of the 3 core features of what sort of dementia?

Lewy Body dementia

How do psychotic symptoms in PTSD work?

Flashbacks may include hallucinations
Hypervigilance may resemble paranoia

What are some substances that can induce psychosis?

Alcohol intoxication or withdrawal
Cocaine
Benzodiazepine withdrawal
Hallucinogens
PCP
Corticosteroids

How can you get psychosis to emerge?

Open-ended questioning

What is the differential diagnosis for psychosis?

Substance induced psychosis
Psychosis due to general medical condition
Primary psychiatric disorders

What is catatonia?

Being absolutely motionless
(OR)
Being overly explosive with ones movements

What are disorders of ideas of reference?

Feeling that a television show is speaking directly to you

What is the nature of the thought disorder of psychosis?

Tangentiality
Loosening of associations
Poverty of thought
Thought blocking

What are delusions?

Fixed, bizarre, unrealistic belief

What is poverty of thought?

Not much to say
-Monosyllabic answers, etc

What is thought blocking?

Blanking out

What are clang associations?

Basically rhyming without making sense

What is verbigeration?

Spewing out words that don't make sense

What is loosening of associations?

Spewing out sentences that don't make sense from one sentence to the next

What are the tenets of abnormal speech associated with psychosis?

Poverty of speech
Mutism
Echolalia
Neologisms
Clang associations
Verbigeration

What is an organic etiology?

A focal brain lesion

Can delusions be accounted for by accepted cultural or religious beliefs?

Nope

What are schneiders "First Rank Symptoms"

Thought insertion
Thought withdrawal
Thought broadcasting
Ability to read other's thoughts
Ideas of reference

What are automatisms?

Repetitive movements

What are thought disorders associated with psychosis?

Tangentiality
Loosening of associations
Poverty of thought
Thoughts blocking

What are elements of abnormal speech associated with psychosis?

Poverty of speech
Mutism
Echolalia
Neologisms
Clang associations

What are olfactory hallucinations associated with?

Temporal lobe pathology

What are delusional disorders?

Non-bizarre delusions (jealous, etc)
-Behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre

When do you see psychotic symptoms during schizoaffective disorders?

During major mood episodes that persist during extended periods outside of the mood episodes

What is the timing of brief psychotic disorders

Last at least 1 day, but less than 1 month

What are negative symptoms?

Avolition
Withdrawal
Anhedonia
Blunted affect
Poverty of Speech

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