neurons form the afferent division of the PNS.
3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions.
At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its ion exchange pump transports
The effect of a particular neurotransmitter is dependent upon the properties of the ________, not the ________.
Bundles of axons in the spinal cord are called
Neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called
Which type of synapse dominates the nervous system?
action potentials occur at successive nodes along the length of the stimulated axon.
During saltatory conduction
The brain and spinal cord comprise the ________ nervous system.
________ neurons are rare, but occur in special sense organs.
Cells responsible for information processing and transfer are the
The type of glial cell that is found lining the ventricles and spinal canal are the
All of the following are functions of cerebral spinal fluid, except that it
Neurotransmitters are released from the
in the membrane that covers axons.
Voltage-regulated channels can be found
Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in
Which of the following is not a function of the neuroglia?
The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
The all-or-none principle states that
Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter
directing activities that continue for extended periods, such as growth and pregnancy.
Each of the following is a function of the nervous system, except
The axon is connected to the soma by the
The proper sequence of these events is
4, 5, 7, 3, 6, 1, 2.
The following is a list of the steps that occur during transmission at an adrenergic synapse.
1. cAMP activate enzyme that open the chemically regulated Na+ channel
2.Norepinephrine is activated by the enzyme COMT.
3.Norepinephrine binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
4.An action potential depolarizes the synaptic knob
5.Calcium ion enter the synaptic know
6.cAMP is activated
7. Norepinephrine is released from the presynaptic know
The myelin sheaths that surround the axons of some of the neurons in the CNS are formed by
Each of the following is an example of a neuroeffector junction, except the junction between a neuron and a(n)
result in local hyperpolarizations.
IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)
The part of the peripheral nervous system that brings information to the central nervous system is
Neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called
The ion needed to initiate the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is
requires ATP to function
The sodium-potassium exchange pump
why neurons cannot regenerate
Most neurons lack centrioles. This observation explains
The site of intercellular communication between neurons is the
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the ________ nervous system.
The correct sequence for these events is
4, 2, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 5.
The following are the steps involved in transmission at a cholinergic synapse
1. Chemically regulated Na+ channel on the postsynaptic membrane are activated
2. Calcium ions enter the synaptic knob
3.Acetycholine is degraded by acethycholinesterase
4.An action potetial depolarize the synaptic knob at the presynaptic membrane
5.The synaptic knob absorb choline
6. Acetycholine is released from storage vesicle by exocytosis
7. Acetycholine binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane
8.Calcium ions are removed by the cytoplasm of the synaptic knob.
are found only in the central nervous system
the characteristics of the receptors.
The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on
Adrenergic synapses release the neurotransmitter
________ neurons are the most common neuron in the CNS.
change the type of neurotransmitter found in the synaptic vesicle
Which of the following is not a possible drug effect on synaptic function?
sodium channels are opened.
EPSPs (excitatory postsynaptic potentials) occur when
Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the
Sensory and motor innervations of the skin of the sides and front of the body are provided by the:
Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region
axons of motor neurons
The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains:
Each of the following nerves is found in the lumbar plexus, EXCEPT the ________ nerve.
cell bodies of sensory neurons
The dorsal root ganglia contain:
The joining of the ventral rami of adjacent spinal nerves is termed a(n):
________ is an inflammation of the meningeal membranes.
The proojections of gray matter toward the outer surface of the spinal cord are called:
A nerve of the cervical plexus that innervates the diaphragm is the _________ nerve.
The ulnar nerve is found in which plexus?
in segments of the spinal cord that control the limbs
Enlargements of the spinal cord occure
diagnosing bacterial and viral infections of the nervous system, samples of cerebrospinal fluid are extracted for analysis. This procedure would logically withdraw fluid for analysis from the
moves a limb away from a painful stimulus
The flexor (withdrawal) reflex:
The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 form the ________ plexus.
axons of sensory neurons
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains:
show wide variability in response
All of the following are true of neural reflexes, EXCEPT that they:
The white matter of the spinal cord is dominated by:
lumbar spinal nerves: 4
Which of the following pairs is NOT properly matched?
bundles of axons that share commor origins, destinations, and functions
The white matter of the spinal cord contains:
The dorsal and ventral roots of each spinal segment unite to form a:
The tough, fibrous outermost covering of the spinal cord is the:
The outermost connective-tissue covering of spinal nerves is the:
The reflex that complements a withdrawal reflex by making compensatory adjustments on the opposite side of the body receiving the stimulus is the ________ reflex
The spinal cord itself is ________ in relation to the vertebral column.
incoming sensor information would be disrupted
If the dorsal root of s spinal nerve is severed
The _____ of each spinal nerve provides sensory and motor innervation to the skin and muscles of the back.
Spinal nerves from the sacral reion of the cord innervate the ________ muscles.
Spinal nerves are __________ nerves.
The specialized membranes that protect the spinal cord are termed:
Regions of the brain that are involved in interpreting data or coordinating motor respoonses are called ________ areas.
cerebrum and cerebellum only
A neural cortex is found on the surface of the:
The primary motor cortex is located in the region of the
able to see letters quite clearly but unable to recognize or interpret them
A person with a damaged visual association area may be:
The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the ________ cortex
use scissors to cut out a picture
Damage to the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to:
Abstract intellectual functions such as predicting the consequences of a particular response occur in the:
The area anterior to the central sulcus is the:
Damage to which of the following cranial nerves could result in death?
The highest levels of information processing occur in the:
The inferior border of the frontal lobe is marked by the
Auditory information from the medulla is received by the:
The ________ is the relay and process center for sensory information
white matter of the cerebellum forms the:
mesencephalic (cerebral) aqueduct
The third and fourth ventricles are linked by the:
After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the ________ lobe
is secreted by ependymal cells
The thin partition that separates the first and second (lateral) ventricles is the:
Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the:
The auditory cortex is located in the:
The simplest reflexes are mediated at the level of the:
What contains a delicate network of collagen and elastin fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates?
The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle through the:
both blood pressure and digestion
The medulla oblongata regulates:
The tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the:
the medulla oblongata
The respiratory rhythmicity center is found in:
result in hydrocephalus
A tumor that blocks the interventricular foramen in the left cerebral hemisphere would:
Which of the following represents a link between the nervous and endocrine systems:
The cranial nerve that has three branches is the:
The visual cortex is ocated in the:
Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate and digestive activities are located in the:
Nerve fibers bundles on the ventrolateral surface of the mesencephalon (midbrain) are the;
Compression of a cranial nerve by a tumor causes a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected?
The two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the:
The parasympathetic nervous system dominates which condition(s)?
In the parasympathetic division, preganglionic fibers are _______ and postganglionic fibers are _______.
Groups of second-order neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ________ ganglia.
Preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and synapse into:
is controlled by sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus
The event called sympathetic activation:
high blood pressure
Drugs known as beta-blockers would be useful for treating:
In the sympathetic division, perganglionic fibers are _______ and postganglionic fibers are ________.
The sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following?
both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving:
Groups of second-order sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called ________ ganglia.
Almost 75% of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
an increase in vessel diameter
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in blood vessels would result in:
Neurons of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system release the neurotransmitter ________ at their effectors
both epinephrine and norepinephrine
The adrenal medulla secretes
increases gastric motility
Increased parasympathetic stimulation
decreased heart rate
Each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglioic sympathetic fibers, EXCEPT:
dilation of the respiratory passageway
Parasympathetic activities include all of the following, EXCEPT the:
Preganglionic nerves that innervate the collateral ganglia form:
The division of the autonomic nervous system that maintains homeostasis during resting conditions is the ________ division
sympathetic stimulation is increased
Autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels would be greatest when:
elevated blood pressure
During sympathetic activation, _______ occurs.
Specialized second-order neurons of the sympathetic nervous system that release neurotransmitters into the bloodstream are located in the:
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord
Preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the:
Which of the following controls visceral effectors?
All of the following are bones that make up the auditory ossicles, EXCEPT the:
The transparent portion of the eye is the:
eustacian tube (pharyngotympanic tube)
structure that allows the middle ear to communicate with the nasopharynx is the:
The shape of the lens is controlled by:
The lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by:
The pigmented portion of the eye is the
Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the:
The central opening in the eye that light passes through is the:
helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina
The vitreous humor:
The external auditory canal ends at the:
The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the:
The vibrations received by the ear are amplified by the action of the:
sclera or fibrous tunic
The outermost portion of the eye is the:
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the:
tympanic membrane to the oval window
The ossicles connect the:
pinna or auricle
The cartilaginous structure that surrounds the external auditory meatus is the:
Organ of Corti
The middle ear collects sound waves and transmits them to the inner ear, which contains the _________
for converting sound waves into nerve impulses.
The lining of the visible outer surface of the eye is the:
contains the photoreceptor cells
The neural tunic (retina):
both utricle and saccule
The ________ conveys information about your body position with respect to gravity.