The Mexican War was the event that
A) convinced Americans that continuing to support military heroes as presidential candidates was unwise.
B) awakened the South to the realization that slavery could never survive in the Southwest.
C) gave rise to the Peace Democrats.
D) forced the issue of slavery and its prospective expansion back onto the national political stage.
As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates,
A) Stephen A. Douglas scored a landslide victory against Abraham Lincoln and became a U.S. senator.
B) the Democrats shunned Stephen A. Douglas.
C) Abraham Lincoln scored a landslide victory against Stephen A. Douglas and became a U.S. senator.
D) Stephan A. Douglas won a senate seat, but Abraham Lincoln became well known.
As a result of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act,
A) the nation once again had only one functioning political party.
B) the Whigs gained new strength and vitality.
C) the Democrats came to dominate northern politics.
D) the nation witnessed the demise of the Whig Party and the eventual rise of a system which the Democrats dominated the South and the Republican Party was limited to the North.
The Fugitive slave Act, part of the Compromise of 1850,
A) was designed to operate in conjunction with personal liberty laws.
B) pleased Northerners weary of the increasing numbers of runaway slaves in their communities.
C) placed the force of the federal government behind Southerners seeking the return of runaway slaves.
D) was the least controversial component of the agreement.
The American Party, or Know-Nothings, appeared in the mid-1850's as
A) an organization advocating equal rights for all immigrants.
B) a political organization designed to include all Americans.
C) part of the movement to bind together Americans who had grown apart because of the continuing controversy over slavery.
D) a reaction to large numbers of Roman Catholics coming to the United States from Germany and Ireland.
The Wilmot Proviso of 1846 proposed that
A) slavery be prohibited in California but allowed in the remainder of the area ceded by Mexico.
B) slavery be allowed to expand only into the area below the southern boundary of Missouri ceded by Mexico.
C) slavery be prohibited throughout the entire area ceded by Mexico.
D) any slaves taken in the area ceded by Mexico be freed at age twenty-eight.
Early in the struggle to win Kansas, proslavery supporters
A) saw that the cause was lost and retreated from the contest.
B) took control by vote fraud, intimidation, and violence.
C) got no support from the presidential administration of Millard Fillmore.
D) provided an excellent example of how the legal and orderly implementation of popular sovereignty might take place.
Ultimately, John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia,
A) caused southern congressmen to propose tighter restrictions on all Northerners wishing to enter the South.
B) influenced dozens of slave uprisings.
C) motivated the federal government to remove the arsenal from the community.
D) left an increasing number of southern whites unable to distinguish between Northerners who merely opposed slavery and those who advocated violence to eradicate it
Abraham Lincoln understood that humanitarian concern for black people would not motivate Northerners to fight to keep slavery out of the territories, so he promoted the "free soil" concept by asserting that the territories were
A) excellent destinations for poor people seeking to improve their conditions.
B) places where whites could settle to escape blacks.
C) excellent places for settlement by all Americans and that the government should give away the land.
D) places where blacks could be sent as a way of opening up parts of the East for whites.
In the national crisis surrounding the presidential election of 1860, southern moderates refused to support the more radical members of the Democratic Party clamoring for a federal slave code. Instead, they
A) attempted to revive the Whig Party.
B) joined Republicans in an effort to preserve the Union.
C) organized the Constitutional Union Party, a political party that had no platform.
D) organized the Consitutional Union Party and put forth an extensive platform much different from anything offered by the Republican and Democrats.
Southerners felt such hostility toward the Republican Party during the presidential election of 1860 that they
A) boycotted the polls in numerous states.
B) refused to allow Lincoln's name to appear on the ballot in ten of the fifteen slave states.
C) burned Lincoln in effigy in most major areas of the South.
D) passed temporary laws allowing women to vote in the hope of defeating the Republicans.
The Compromise of 1850
A) was neither a true compromise nor a final settlement of all the issues it addressed.
B) passed Congress easily because of the sense of urgency attached to it.
C) saw Millard Fillmore awarded the honorary title of "Great Pacificator" upon the death of Henry Clay in 1852.
D) received wide national support and solved for the foreseeable future all the problems it addressed.
The slave states of the Upper South were not as quick to secede from the Union after Lincoln's election because
A) the U.S. army had already assembled on the north bank of the Potomac River as a persuasive deterrent to secession.
B) they generally believed that secession was an ill-considered idea.
C) they had great difficulty in getting together a quorum of legislators to debate the issue.
D) they simply did not have a great a stake in slavery as the states in the Lower South had.
When the first territorial legislature in Kansas met, it
A) enacted tough proslavery laws and prompted the organization of a rival government.
B) voted to settle the slavery issue peacefully.
C) voted to secede from the union.
D) voted to repeal the Fugitive Slave Law within the territorial boundaries.
In 1854, Stephen A. Douglas sponsored the Kansas-Nebraska Act and included a section repealing the Missouri Compromise because
A) he agreed with the arguments of proslavery theorists about the best way to organize southern society.
B) he had never supported the Missouri Compromise in the first place.
C) unbeknownst to his colleagues and constituents, Douglas pocketed large sums of money from southern legislators in return for supporting their causes.
D) he needed southern support to pass his legislation, and opening up an area previously closed to slavery seemed the only way to get it.
The common thread that wove together northern men into the Republican Party in 1854 was their
A) belief that citizenship was too easily achieved by ill-prepared foreigners.
B) conviction that the federal government should do much more to implement social reform in the nation.
C) opposition to the extension of slavery into any territory of the United States.
D) belief that Congress should move quickly to abolish slavery where it existed.
When Zachary Taylor became president in 1849, he enraged Southerners by
A) proposing a ten-year program to phase out slavery in the nation.
B) urging Congress to admit California and New Mexico as free states.
C) unveiling a new railroad-building plan that favored the North over the South.
D) introducing a new tariff bill that would affect cotton plantation owners.
Points Earned: 1.0/1.0
When proslavery forces in Lecompton, Kansas, drafted a proslavery constitution in 1857 that many felt was fraudulent, Stephen A. Douglas
A) refrained from making any public statements concerning the framework of the Kansas government.
B) broke with the Buchanan administration and the southern members of his party by coming out against the proslavery constitution.
C) stood solidly behind southern Democrats and President James Buchanan in supporting the document.
D) demanded that the votes be recounted before he would take a stand on this issue.
John Brown's leadership of a massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas, led to
A) government troops declaring martial law in the territory.
B) the realization of the need for a revote on the popular sovereignty issue.
C) an increase in the number of proslavery demonstrations nationwide.
D) guerilla war engulfing the territory.
In the 1857 Dred Scott decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
A) The Missouri Compromise was constitutional.
B) black people in the United States could be declared citizens under certain circumstances.
C) Dred Scott could not legally claim violation of his constitutional rights because he was not a citizen of the United States.
D) Congress had the power to prohibit slavery in the territories.
Before the federal government could marshal the men, money, and materials necessary to wage an effective war against the Confederacy, it first had to
A) expand its role in American life, which meant moving beyond the Democratic policies that had for two decades restricted government direction of the economy.
B) rid itself of numerous conservative Republicans holding back important measures in Congress.
C) hold the line on inflation, as voluntary contributions of money were initially an important source of revenue to finance the war.
D) roll back its influence in American life in order to entice more Americans to support its policies.
In the Civil War, military success in the West centered on controlling
A) the Ozark mountain region.
B) the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland rivers.
C) the region's railroad network.
D) the region's farmlands and food production.
President Lincoln clashed with northern Democrats over the thorny issue of civil liberties basically because Lincoln believed that
A) the Constitution should be completely suspended until the South was defeated.
B) the war required a loose interpretation of the Constitution.
C) free speech tended to be subversive even during peacetime.
D) what the government needed to do to ensure the loyalty of northern civilians was resurrect the Alien and Sedition Acts.
The Confederacy's efforts to centralize its government and production facilities encountered resistance because of
A) the general unwillingness of white Southerners to support the war effort after 1863.
B) frequent riots by soldiers, who were paid inadequately or not at all.
C) the conviction on the part of numerous slaveholders that the Davis government meant to confiscate some of their slaves and sell them to Latin American nations for money to continue the war.
D) the South's traditional values of states' rights and unrestrained individualism.
In choosing Tennessean Andrew Johnson as his running mate in the presidential election of 1864, Abraham Lincoln
A) was taking a huge chance, as Johnson was a political novice with no experience in elected office.
B) was removing from the battlefield one of the North's most successful generals.
C) picked a Southerner loyal to the Union to demonstrate the Lincoln's party was broad enough to include any uncompromising Unionist.
D) was demonstrating his desperation at the end of the war: he could find no one else interested in sharing the ticket with him.
While the North's industrial production boomed during the Civil War, the working class there found that
A) because their labor was sorely needed, they were able to control the workplace as never before.
B) they, too, enjoyed unprecedented prosperity.
C) they could expect quick promotions as well as fatter pay envelopes.
D) inflation and taxes cut so deeply into their wages that their standard of living actually fell.
Abraham Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation
A) because he considered emancipation to be "essential to the preservation of the Union."
B) as a response to the constant lobbying of abolitionists pressing him to free the slaves.
C) as a personal moral statement in regarding why slaves should be free.
D) as a way to appease the entire Northern population and their cries for freedom for all slaves.
On March 4, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln delivered an inaugural address in which he revealed his strategy to avoid disunion; that strategy was to
A) send to all slave states specially annotated copies of the Constitution clearly pointing out why secession was illegal.
B) send the Union army to South Carolina because it was the first state to secede.
C) take measures to stop the contagion of secession and buy time in order for emotions to cool.
D) dispatch special emissaries to the slave states believed most likely to secede to threaten harsh government action should those states proceed.
Southerners believed they had a real chance of winning the Sivil War based on
A) all of the above.
B) their belief that southern men were physically tougher than northern men.
C) the righteousness of their cause and the character of the southern people.
D) their belief that withholding cotton would wreck the northern economy and force England or France to enter the war on the side of the Confederacy.
When the Civil War ended, President Lincoln was confident that
A) the transition to a peaceful nation would be simple compared with the many problems encountered because of the war.
B) his postwar burdens would weigh almost as heavily as those of wartime.
C) his role in bringing the conflict to a successful conclusion would guarantee him the office of president as long as he wanted it.
D) Democrats would eagerly support Republican policies.
The border states of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware did not secede from the Union; in these areas
A) the decision to go with the Union was unanimous because slaves were such a small part of the population.
B) they called the war a "brother's war," because family members were always united in fighting on the same side.
C) popular sentiment was not unanimously pro-Confederate.
D) the citizens threatened to split off and create their own separate nation.
When President Lincoln remarked early in the Civil War, "If General McClellan does not want to use the army, I would like to borrow it," he was expressing
A) his confusion regarding McClellan's frequent requests to be reassigned.
B) his frustration at McClellan's refusal to drill the troops before ten o'clock in the morning.
C) his frustration that McClellan had amassed and trained a huge military force but refusted to use it to attack the Confederates.
D) his desire to have a military command of his own.
The Battle of Vicksburg in July 1863
A) was an astounding Confederate victory that gave Union commanders pause concerning whether they could actually win the war.
B) was an important Union victory that opened up a large portion of the Mississippi River.
C) produced a stalemate after horrendous casualties.
D) was a Confederate victory that not only upset Union commanders but also rid the lower Mississippi Valley of the federal army.
The first battle at Manassas (or Bull Run) in July 1861 is significant because it
A) had an instantly sobering effect on Southerners, who realized they would have to beef up their troops to have a chance at winning the war.
B) disheartened Northerners to the extent that men stopped volunteering for the Union army.
C) was a bloodbath in which thousands of men died.
D) demonstrated that Americans were in for a real war, one that would be neither quick nor easy.
In strict military terms, the Battle of Gettysburg in the summer of 1863
A) stimulated an important council of war among major Union generals, who concluded that the North would be better off suing for peace to save the lives of their soldiers.
B) was a crucial turning point for Confederate armies, as it proved to be the last time Confederates launched a major offensive above the Mason-Dixon Line.
C) became an important experiment in which the South got to field-test several new secret weapons.
D) proved to be a catastrophe for the South in that so much of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia was destroyed that it no longer functioned as an effective fighting force.
States in the Upper South that were undecided about secession but then decided to exit the Union did so after
A) President Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to put down the rebellion that began when Confederates took Fort Sumpter.
B) a special delegation from the deep South toured the upper tier of slave states and convinced the leaders of those states to secede.
C) minor slave revolts began breaking out, clearly threatening the region's institution of slavery.
D) the new Confederate government offered those states special tax advantages if they would join the other slave states seeking independence from the government in Washington, D.C.
At the end of 1862, the eastern theater of the Civil War
A) had been a great success for the Union because the same northern generals stayed on for the duration, getting wiser with each battle.
B) had seen one Union victory after another.
C) had reached a stalemate.
D) made it obvious that the rebellion was nearly over.
As President Lincoln wavered in his policy of noninterference with slavery, he considered the biggest obstacle to the acceptance of emancipation in the Union to be
A) the fears of Northerners that freed slaves would cause overcrowding in schools.
B) the difficulty of finding a suitable place to send the freed slaves.
C) the fears of Northerners that freed slaves, whom they considered "semi-savages," would flood the North, compete for jobs, and try to mix socially with them.
D) public concern about the constitutionality of emancipation.
Points Earned: 1.0/1.0
President Lincoln's determination to hold elections in 1864 is particularly noteworthy because
A) most members of the Republican Party had vowed to oppose his nomination in 1864.
B) with the Union war effort stalled and many Northerners basically weary of much of what the war had heaped on them, the Democrats had an excellent chance of ousting the Lincoln administration.
C) most Union soldiers were so angry that Lincoln had allowed the war to drag on for so long that they were threatening to support the Democratic ticket.
D) much of the North's electoral process had shut down and would have to be revived in order to hold elections.
When the Civil War broke out, President Lincoln chose not to make the conflict a struggle over slavery because
A) he doubted his right under the Constitution to tamper with the "domestic institutions" of any state, even those in rebellion.
B) he believed slavery to be a relatively insignificant issue.
C) he was not completely confident that destroying slavery was the best thing for African Americans.
D) he thought that eradicating slavery would unleash millions of angry, violent freedmen on the white South.
Andrew Johnson had crossed over from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party before becoming president, but he seemed to be more of a Democrat than a Republican as president because
A) his racism toward non-whites and his unwillingness to support any aspect of Lincoln's reconstructionn plans.
B) his vetoes of civil rights legislation and his attempt to empower the Freedmen's Bureau.
C) his advocacy of states' rights and of limitations on federal power, especially in the economic realm.
D) his veto of the Wade-Davis bill and his position on federal subsidies.
The army's system of "compulsory free labor" in the South during and after the Civil War differed from the slave labor system in that
A) wages were to be paid, and employers were prohibited from using physical punishment, though the army could discipline blacks who refused to work.
B) wages were to be paid, and physical punishment by anyone was strictly prohibited.
C) wages were to be paid, and redimentary workers' unions were set up to protect the rights of ex-slaves.
D) wages were to be paid, and only the local sheriff could physically punish a worker.
Reformers were shocked by President Andrew Johnson's quick reconstruction of ex-Confederate states because
A) Johnson's lenient terms for the reconstruction belied his earlier states' rights stance.
B) his civil rights legislation failed to follow through on his promise to grant the freedmen voting rights.
C) his harsh terms for reconstruction belied his earlier statements of leniency.
D) his reconstruction plan seemed to contradict his earlier statements of willingness to destroy the southern planter aristocrats.
In attempting to establish a reconstruction policy after the Civil War,
A) Congress wated to ensure the return to power of the former southern ruling class.
B) Lincoln's primary goal was to extend full political rights to ex-slaves.
C) Congress and the president disagreed about who had authority to devise a plan of reconstruction.
D) Lincoln rejected the "10 percent plan."
In 1865, moderate Republicans and Republican Radicals differed in that
A) moderates championed black equality, while Radicals sought limited rights for the black American.
B) moderates did not actively support black voting rights and distribution of confiscated lands to the freedmen, while Radicals did.
C) moderates supported Andrew Johnson's reconstruction plan, while Radicals wanted to write their own.
D) moderates supported states' rights and limited federal involvement in the economy, while Radicals sought expanded federal powers.
During the Reconstruction era, the southern black codes
A) guaranteed freedment full political and civil rights.
B) re-established slavery.
C) desegregated southern society.
D) restructed freedmen's economic opportunities and civil rights.
The Union victory in the Civil War resolved the issues of
A) slavery and secession but left unresolved the issue of presidential and congressional term limits.
B) slavery and secession but left unresolved the issues of compensation for ex-slaveholders and the conversion of Confederate currency to legal U.S. currency.
C) slavery and secession but left undetermined the standing of the defeated ex-Confederate states within the Union and the place of freedmen in American society.
D) citizenship and freedom for ex-slaves but left unresolved the issues of secession and states' rights.
President Ulysses S. Grant's administration saw
A) labor violence, civil service reform, little corruption, and a major depression.
B) a severe economic recession, numerous incidents of corruption, and enormous success for railroads.
C) widespread criticism for Grant's part in the Civil War, labor violence, and a satisfactory resolution of the dispute over war damages owed by Great Britain.
D) corruption at all levels of government, a severe economic depression, labor violence, and an attempt to annex Santo Domingo to provide the freedmen with a new home.
Congressional reconstruction did not meet all of its goals, but it did achieve some successes; critical evidence to support this statement includes
A) the legacy of the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Amendments, the Civil Rights Act of 1875, and the United States v. Crikshank decision.
B) the legacy of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, the Civil Rights Act of 1875, and the establishment of public schools.
C) the Slaughterhouse decisions, the Compromise of 1877, the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, and the Civil Rihts Act of 1866.
D) the Supreme Court's role in expanding the federal powers, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, the congressional elections of 1865, and the black codes.
When Union General Carl Schurz undertook a fact-finding mission to the ex-Confederate states in the summer of 1865, he determined that newly freed balcks would need
A) jobs, access to an unbiased judicial system, and voting rights.
B) economic, social, and political equality.
C) federal protection, land of their own, and voting rights.
D) military protection, employment contracts, and social equality.
The U.S. congressional elections of 1865, combined with the black codes and with President Andrew Johnson's vetoes of key civil rights legislation,
A) forced President Johnson to denounce the legality of the new southern state constitutions.
B) forged unity among moderates and the radicals within the Republican party.
C) strengthened the South's position in its attempt to shape reconstruction policies.
D) forged unity among moderate Democrats and moderate Republicans.
Who might have opposed President Andrew Johnson's reconstruction plan because they felt that he "acted as midwife to the rebirth of the Old South"?
A) Democratic legislators
B) southern newspapers
C) southern planters
D) Republican legislators
The new southern state constitutions required by the Reconstruction Acts introduced
A) universal male suffrage, debtor relief for home mortgages, prison reforms, abilition of the property qualification for holding an elected office, and state responsibility for the care of orphans and the insane.
B) universal male suffrage, prison reform, state responsibility for the care of orphans and the insane, and mandatory education.
C) black male suffrage, prison reforms, land redistribution, and mandatory education.
D) black male suffrage, asylums for the insane, orphanages, mandatory education, and redistribution of property.
In the Compromise of 1877,
A) southern Democrats accepted Republican rule in the White House in exchange for federal monies for internal improvements and the removal of federal troops from the South.
B) Republicans accepted Democratic Rule in the White House as long as the Republicans obtained majority rule in Congress and the Democratic president would protect the southern Republican Party members.
C) Democrats would regain control of Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana and would in return support a Republican presidency and approve appropriations for internal improvments in the North.
D) the Republican Party was promised majority rule in Congress, and the Democratic Party was promised complete home rule in the South and lower taxes.
The black codes were essentially an attempt to
A) extend to blacks the same rights that whites enjoyed.
B) provide economic equality but restrict social and political equality.
C) subordinate blacks to whites and regulate the labor supply.
D) extend rights, although limited, to the freedmen.
As new constitutions were ratified in the South in the late 1860's, local and state Republican governments focused on
A) defense of civil rights, desegregation, black employment opportunity, and the restoration of a cotton economy.
B) public education, defense of civil rights, abolition of racial discrimination, and the creation of a diversified economy.
C) providing public education, full civil rights for blacks, and the reestablishment of a thriving economy based on agriculture.
D) full black equality, public education, and redistribution of property.
Abraham Lincoln's and Andrew Johnson's reconstruction plans shared the following points of emphasis:
A) Rapid restoration of civil government in the South, reconciliation, and limited black voting.
B) reconciliation, rapid restoration of civil government in the South, pardons for most ex-rebels, and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
C) rapid restoration of civil government in the South, reconciliation, confiscation of rebel property, and full amnesty to ex-Confederates.
D) reconciliation, rapid restoration of civil government in the South, full amnesty to ex-rebels, and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
The best evidence that presidential and congressional reconstruction efforts failed to reach their original goals is
A) the failure to distribute land to freedmen, the presidential election of 1876, John's reconstruction policies, and the failure of the Redeemers to sufficiently desegregate the South.
B) the failure to redistribute land to the freedmen, the role of the Supreme Court in undermining Republican reform efforts, the Compromise of 1877, ongoing racism, and the evolving conservatism of the nation after the war.
C) the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the weak presidency of Andrew Johnson, the Compromise of 1877, and the greed of northern capitalists.
D) the failure to provide freedmen with their own land, the Supreme Court's retrenchment of federal powers to protect civil rights, the corruption of Grant's administration, and Lincoln's assassination.
The constitutional amendment that prohibited states from depriving citizens of the right to vote on the basis of their "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
A) failed to deal adequately with the grandfather clauses imposed by southern states.
B) was undetermined by literacy and property qualifications in Southern states.
C) made the United States the first nation with universal adult suffrage.
D) effectively restructured political power in the South until 1900.
The one provision in the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 that could be said to have initiated "radical reconstruction" is
A) the freeing of all slaves.
B) the imposition of martial law.
C) black suffrage.
D) the confiscation of lands.