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Nerve of the Cervical Plexus

Phrenic Nerve

Phrenic Nerve

Runs inferiorly through the thorax and supplies both sensory and motor fibers to the diaphragm (muscle for breathing)

Nerves of the Brachial Plexus

Axillary nerve, Musculocutaneous Nerve, Median Nerve, Ulnar Nerve and Radial Nerve

Axillary Nerve

Branches off the posterior cord and runs posterior to the surgical neck of the humerus and innervates the deltoid and teres minor muscles and the skin/joint capsule of the shoulder

Musculocutaneous Nerve

major end branch of the lateral cord, It courses inferiorly in the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the biceps Brachii and brachialis muscles and distal to the elbow it provides for cutaneous sensation of the Lateral forearm

Median Nerve

descends through the arm to the anterior forearm, where it gives off branches to the skin and to most flexor muscles. Upon reaching the hand, it innervates five intrinsic muscles of the lateral palm. This nerve activates muscles that pronate the forearm, flex the wrist/fingers and oppose the thumb

Ulnar Nerve

Branching off the medial cord of the plexus descending along the medial aspect of the arm toward the elbow, courses behind the medial epicondyle and then follows the ulna along the medial forearm. Here it supplies the flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial part of the flexor digitorum profundus and continues into the hand, where it innervates most intrinsic hand muscles and the skin of the medial aspect of the hand. It produces wrist/finger flexion and abduction/abduction of the medial fingers.

Radial Nerve

Continuation of the posterior cord and longest branch of the Brachial Plexus; Wraps around the humerus and runs anteriorly around the lateral epicondyle at the elbow and divides into a superficial branch that follows the lateral edge of the radius to the hand; It supplies the posterior limb along its entire course and its motor branches innervated nearly all the extensor muscles of the upper limb; allows for extension of the elbow, supinates the forarm, extends the wrist/finger, and abducts the thumb.

Nerves of the Lumbar Plexus

Femoral Nerve and obturator nerve

Femoral nerve

largest nerve of this plexus running deep to the inguinal ligament to enter the thigh and then divides into several large branches. The motor branches innervate anterior thigh muscles (quadriceps), which are thigh flexors and knee extensors.The cutaneous branches serve the skin of the anterior thigh and the medial surface of the leg from knee to foot.

Obturator Nerve

Nerve enters the medial thigh via the obturator foramen and innervates the adductor muscle

Nerves of the Sacral Plexus

Sciatic Nerve; Tibial nerve; Fibular Nerve; Superior and Inferior Gluteal Nerves; Pudendal Nerve

Sciatic Nerve

longest and thickest nerve in the body. It supplies the entire lower limb. This nerve is composed of the common fibular and tibular nerves - both of which are wrapped in a common sheath. The sciatic nerve leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic notch. It courses deep to the gluteus maximus and enters the posterior thigh, just medial to the hip joint. There it gives off motor branches to the hamstring muscles (all thigh extensors) and to the adductor magnus. Immediately above the knee, the two divisions of this nerve diverge

Tibial Nerve

This nerve courses through the popliteal fossa (the area just posterior to the knee joint) and supplies the posterior muscles of the leg, skin of the posterior calf and sole of the foot.

Fibular Nerve

wraps around the neck of the fibula and then divides into superficial and deep branches with the the deep branches innervating the knee joint, skin of the anterior/lateral leg, dorsum of the foot, muscles of the anterolateral leg (the extensors that dorsiflex the foot).

Super and Inferior Gluteal Nerves

Innervate the buttock and tensor fasciae latae muscles

Pudendal Nerve

Innervates the muscles and skin of the perineum, helps stimulate erection and involve in the voluntary control of urination

Sural nerve

In the area of the knee, the tibial nerve gives rise to this nerve, which serves the skin of the posterolateral leg.

Medial and Lateral Plantar Nerves

At the ankle, the tibial nerve divides into the these nerves, which serve most of the foot.

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