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Mr.moen's class Commonwealth institute of Funeral services

Mediastinum

Space between the lungs that houses the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi

Atria (Atrium)

-The two upper chambers of the heart
-The receiving areas that pool incoming blood.

Foraman Ovale

Opening in the inner dividing wall of the fetus heart that allows blood from the right side to mix with the blood on the left side.

Fossa Ovale

-Scar tissue where the foramen ovale existed until it closed up shortly after birth.
-Oval shaped shallow depression best seen in the
RIGHT Atrium

Ventricles

-The two lower chambers of the heart
-Pump blood out to the lungs and body
-Larger in terms of volume than upper two chambers

Papillary Muscles

-Finger-like muscles only located in the Ventricles of the heart
-Will contract just before the upper chambers
-Attached to the Chordae Tendinae to limit movement of valve cusps and prevent back-flow of blood

Chordae Tendinae

Attach Papillary muscles tot he individual sections (cusps) of the heart valves which they control.

Tricuspid Valve

-3 cusp valve located between the Right Atrium & the Right Ventricle
-Closes when the right ventricle contracts, allowing blood flow into the lungs and prevent back-flow into the right atrium
*Controlled by Papillary Muscles & Chordae Tendinae

Pulmonary (Semilunas) Valve

-A semilunar 3 cusps valve that controls the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
-1st to ship blood low in Oxygen away from the heart towards the lungs
-Prevent back-flow of blood; Back-flow of blood fills up its valves

Bicuspid (Mistal) Valve

-Valve located between & controls the opening of the LEFT atrium and LEFT ventricle
-2 distinct sections

Aortic (Semilunar) Valve

-Controls the opening between the LEFT Ventricle and Aorta
-3 cusps valve prevents back-flow

Aorta

Largest artery in the human body.

ENDOcardium

-The INNERMOST layer of the heart that lines the inner chambers & heart valves
-Layers from which cuspids are made

Myocardium

-Thick MIDDLE muscle layer of the heart that pumps blood through the circulatory system
-LEFT ventricle has the most of this particular tissue

Pericardium

-Double-layered : Visceral and Parietal
-OUTERMOST membrane surrounding the heart

Visceral Pericardium

-The thin, inner layer of the Pericardum sac that closely adheres to the heart. (Epioardium)

Parietal Pericardium

-The tough outermost layer of the pericardium that is attached to the diaphragm and the sternum

Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Orafice

-Opening in the RIGHT Atrium through which the SVC passes
-Drains any blood originating from the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic cavity
-Named by direction and location, not size

Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Orifice

-Opening of the IVC directly into the RIGHT Atrium of the heart
-Drains blood originating from the lower extremities and the abdominal region.

Right Atrioventrical Orifice

-The opening between the RIGHT Atrium and the RIGHT Ventrical
-Controlled by the Tricuspid valve

Left Atrioventrical Orifice

-The opening between the LEFT Atrium and the LEFT Ventrical
-Controlled by the Bicuspid valve

Coronary Sinus Orifice

-Opening of the Coronary Sinus directly into the RIGHT Atrium of the heart.

Coronary Sinus Vein

-Large vein that drains blood from the heart muscle itself
-Opens in the RIGHT Atrium

Pulmonary Vein Orifice

-Four openings of Four Pulmonary veins directly into the LEFT Atrium of the heart

Pulmonary Trunk Orifice

-Opening between RIGHT Ventrical and Pulmonary Trunk.

Aortic Orifice

-opening between LEFT Ventrical & the Aorta
-Controlled by the Aortic Semilunar Valve

Pulmonary Circulation

-The two way exchange of blood between the heart & lungs
-Circulation begins in the Right Ventricle & ends in the Left Atrium
-This is how blood becomes oxygenized

Right Atrium

- Upper right chamber
-Most important in embalming to establish and maintain drainage. -Low in oxygen blood
-Involved in Systematic Circulation

Left Atrium

- Upper left chamber, receives blood from lungs
-Involved in Pulmonary Circulation

Right Ventricle

- Lower right chamber
-Pumping un-oxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen
-Involved in Pulmonary Circulation

Left Ventricle

- lower left chamber
-largest and strongest muscle
-last pump of blood with oxygen to the body via arteries
-Involved in Systematic Circulation

Systematic Circulation

-The exchange of blood between the heart and the rest of the body; except the lungs.
-Starts in the left ventricle (LV) and ends in right atrium (RA).
-Takes oxygen to the body and returns the waste.

Tacky heart rhythm

-All four chambers beating at same time.

Ductus Arteriosus

-Passageway or duct between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta of a FETAL heart

Ligamentum Arteriosum

-A remnant of the Ductus Arteriosis
-This structure attaches to both the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk

Ductus Venosus

-Single vein located between the liver and the IVC during fetal circulation

Ligamentum Venasum

-Band that runs between the two lobes of the liver
-Was once the Ductus Venosus.

Umbilical Arteries

-Two arteries that ship low oxygen blood away from fetal heart toward placenta.
- It is inside umbilical cord at birth and falls off with umbilical cord falling off

Lateral Umbilical Ligaments

-Adult counterpart of the Umbilical Arteries

Umbilical Vein

-Blood vessel that ships high oxygen from placenta to belly button.
-Then after birth it is part of umbilical cord that falls off

Ligamentum Teres of Liver

-Adult counterpart of the Umbilical Vein

Diastole

-Resting phase of cardiac cycle. -Contraction of upper chambers of heart at same time

Systolic

-Contraction phase, contraction of two lower chambers at same time

120/80 blood pressure reading

Systolic
-------------
Diastole

Artery

-A three layer blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.

Vein

-A three layer blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart of a living person.

Tunica Externa (Adventita)

-Outermost layer of a blood vessel which connects it to surrounding tissues
-Elastic Layer

Arteriole

-2 layer blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart of a person.

Tunica Media

-Middle layer or an Artery or Vein
-Outermost layer of Arteriole
-Made up of smooth/visceral muscle

Venule

-2 layer blood vessel that carries blood twards the heart of a person.

Capillary

-Single layer blood vessel which joins the arterial system with the venous system

Tunica Interna

-Innermost layer of blood vessels and Venules
-Only layer of Capillaries
-Dosent need its own blood supply

Vasa Vasorum

-Blood vessels feeding the outer layer(s) [Tunica Externa & Tunica Media]
-Appear as red-lines on arteries

Alternate (Collateral) Circulation

-Secondary routes of blood flow throughout the body

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