age of Enlightenment
built on the innovations of the 18th century and paved the way of "modern theatre"
led to the industrial revolution in the 19th century
The flying shuttle, the spinning Jenny, and the cotton gin
Drive of Profits
manufacturing, transportation, steam engines, new modes of communication and made it down to middle class
gave us verse, tragedy, comedy, ballad opera, operettas, literature, & exploration
gave us opera, Commedia dell' Arte, arch, painting, architecture, & exploration
gave us ; farce, ballet, & exploration
our theatres also included immigrants from Ireland, Italy, Spain, Russia, Poland, Germany, Greece, Scandinavia, West Indies, Africa we also had women actors
came to Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1620 thought theatre was immoral, work-moral, play immoral theatre idleness was the devil's plaything and thought actors pretend to be someone else and lying made them an agent of the devil and they thought they were all prostittutes and gamblers
For the_____theatre was only fine if they made profit because you were smiled on by God if the business made money it was good
First American Theatre
it was built in 1716 in Williamsburg VA,
The Black Crook
made in 1866 had 475 consecutive performances was the first book musical with french ballet troupe in the melodrama also was the first american musical and made over $1million.
America's contribution to Western Theatre and Crook was the first
_______ loved vaudeville, Burlesque, minstrel shows, jugglers, animal acts, ballad operas, melodramas, and other light fare, Light opera, operettas, circus, wild west shows, variety, and medicine shows
worlds greatest showman he would show many things like: vaudeville, Burlesque, minstrel shows, jugglers, animal acts, ballad operas, melodramas, and other light fare, Light opera, operettas, circus, wild west shows, variety, and medicine shows
born in Philly of stage parents moved to Springfield,IL where politicians charged father Joseph Jefferson Sr. a fee for theatre license (Lincoln never charged them the fee). Got Ms. Keene to do "Our American Cousin"
" Our American Cousin"
Written by Tom Taylor Asa Trenchard Lord Dundreary played by English actor E.A. Southern also was done with Mic as Asa & Lord Dundreary and Elizabeth as Mary.
This play was also performed on April 14, 1865 at Ford's Theatre in Washington DC in attendence to this play was John Wilkes Booth(shot Lincoln), Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln(lincoln's wife), Major Rathbone(Military officer who tried to stop Booth from fleeing, but was stabbed in the process), Miss Clara Harris(fiance of Rathbone) Gen. Grant(General of the army), and Laura Keene(owner of theatre)
was in State Box 11 feet high by the dress circle when Booth who was armed with single shot derringer & Bowie knife shot him and stabbed one of the men sitting ith him after shooting Booth yelled "sic semper tyrannis" in the box jumped onto to stage and yelled "Revenge for the South" on April 26 Booth was shot in VA and 4 others hanged in Washington on July 7.
body was finally laid to rest in Springfield, IL
First modern theatre in NYC was finished in 1869 had Modern orchestra area, balconies, and seats were individual armchairs
Stage was not raked but seats were and no groves but elevators and wing and drop from
Chestnut Street Theatre
Built in 1816 in Philly was completely gas lit theatre
American Musical Theatre
music was ragtime, jazz, big band, B'Way, pop, rock & roll, blues, country, gospel table is set
because of the: American Spirit Manifest Destiny, Melting Pot, and Production line
died at age 63 was first great American (impresario extraordinaire) producer of Follies Eugene Sandow and Chicago World's Fair
Geo M. Cohan
died at age 64 statue of him on B'Way he was the father of American Musical Comedy was Irish Catholic American, vaudeville first ugly american was brash, in your face, aggressive
built in Times square on april 4,1904 was called Longacre Square until it was built
Oscar Hammerstein I
was a cigar manufacturer and built the first theatre on Times Square
died at age 47 in 1922 in 1910 Follies song and dance man WC Fields called him the funniest man that I ever saw and the saddest man that I ever knew
died at age 101 in 1989 came out with White Christmas, God Bless America, Easter Parade, No Biz Like Show Biz, Alexander's Rag Time Band, Swanee River
died at age 59 in 1951 was Jewish Hungarian (ugly but funny)
died at age 60 in 1945 was Jewish German; Old Man River
Oscar Hammerstein II
died at age 65 in 1960 was Jewish German director last show with Richard Rogers was Sound of Music in 1959
Tin Pan Alley
West 28th Street where composers, lyricists, and songwriters would set up shop
July 1919 dancer's wanted $ 8/wk costumes, rehearsal time, travel, health, pension, Safety, no $ rehearsals, out of town Light operas, operettas, musical comedies
premiered in 1927 written by Edna Ferber which was published in 1926 the music was done by Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II produced by Florence Ziegfeld
was most profound influence on the American Musical
Premiered in 1943 by Hammerstein II and Rogers , Agnes de Mille Pulitzer Prize was given to rogers and Hammerstein because it was first musical to use dance to further the story
Came in the 20th century they too used and liked realism
characters on the fringe - most famous play, family (his) Long Day's Journey also Moon for the Misbegotten - 4 Pulitzers (P) Desire Under the Elms, The Iceman Cometh, and Ah, Wilderness
wrote about family had style of Southern Gothic won 2 Pulitzers(1948,1955) -A Streetcar Named Desire , Cat on a Hot tin Roof, The Glass Menagerie, Summer and Smoke, Rose Tattoo, Camino Real, Suddenly Last Summer, Sweet Bird of Youth, The Night of the Iguana.
Elizabeth and Mic performed A Cat On a Hot Tin Roof with Elizabeth as Maggie and Mic as Brick
wrote about family and wrote about unjust system, misplaced values, power run amok. Won 1 Pulitzers 1949 Death of a Salesman, Crucible, View from the Bridge
Pittsburg Cycleconsisted of 10 plays set in Pittsburgh Hill District one play for each decade from1900-2000 2 Pulitzers Fences & Piano Lesson died at 60 liver cancer. His dad was a German immigrant and mom cleaning woman from NC wrote about extended family sometimes referred to as black American Shakespeare
1928 to Zoo Story, Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf(most famous) "Delicate Balance" won 3 or 4 Pulitzers had absurd realism in his plays he is still writing Me, Myself and I (2007)
master of realism wrote Glengarry Glen Ross (P-'84) which about masculinity and also wrote American Buffalo(about 3 males) Con men, second story guys, thieves, producers on the take - like Strindberg
came to be known as "Mamet speak"
Glengarry Glen Ross
about masculinity and characters and actors include:
George Aronow: Alan Arkin
Dave Moss: Ed Harris
Shelley Levine:Jack Lemon
Ricky Roma: Al Pacino
John Williams: Kevin Spacey,
James Lingk :Jonathan Pryce
Alec Baldwin: Blake
20 C realism
brought about by social change and Industrial revolution, Edison 1879, Steam power, transportation, new modes of communications, WWI 1914-1918 where 8.5 Million people died and Russian revolution in 1917 after all this was peace but economic problems led to great depression to Hitler, Mussolini, Franco, and Stalin
Darwin, Marx, Freud
these three helped set the table for realism
in 1859 came out with origin of species
in 1867 came out with Das Kapital and feudalism, capitalism, socialism
in 1900 came out with Interpretation of Dreams
Norwegian 1828-1906 A Doll House, Ghosts, Hedda Gabler individuals vs. society A Doll House vs. A Doll's House Et Dukkehjem does have gender specific articles, this one is neuter-neutral. Called to social attention Taboo subject matter
Late in career moved away from realism to the supernatural or theatre of the absurd
brilliant teacher,poet and master translator of Ibsen
Swedish 1849-1912 Father, Miss Julie between themselves and each other and sexes
More real than Ibsen moving towards naturalism no intermission about lower class
Call to social attention
Taboo subject matter
Late in career moved away from realism to the supernatural or theatre of the absurd
Russian 1860-1904 Seagull, 3 Sisters, Uncle Vanya, and Cherry Orchard
Moved away from melodramatic elements in Ibsen and Strindberg to a larger gallery of characters, 12-14 rather than 5 or 6, and developed a new genre often referred to as tragicomedy and led to more use in our modern theatre. Also known as the master of subtext.
Shot X 3 then Cherry Orchard
Seagull St. Petersburg vs. MAT w/Constantine Stanislavski & Nemirovich Danchenko 1898,
MAT (Moscow Art Theatre)
Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov in Scandinavia, Russia, etc.
Strindberg in Scandinavia, etc.
Ionesco, O'Neill in Germany WWI
used Epic theatre, "Mother Courage" was against Stanislavski and realism
great deal of time, shift locations, intricate plots, and many characters audience involved intellectually not emotionally, alienated from dramatic action, highly theatrical, use narrator, song, dance, and used history, Historification, setting plays in the past but really referring to contemporary events paralleling the historic occurrences.
to cause the audience to think and use their mind by not being comfortable
"Waiting for Godot" pattern play, tragicomedy, a comedy with tragic consequences-ABSURDISM
The Resistible Rise of Arturo Ui set in Chicago, 1930's but about Hitler with music hall interludes, tableaus, elements of sound, opening look, and closing convention
Greeks, English Renaissance, and the 20th Century were three greatest contributing eras towards_________ . However though table was set by all others
author of O BEAUTIFUL
director of O BEAUTIFUL