amine group, carboxal group, carbon chain
The three parts of an amino acid are..
What determines an amino acids chemical properties?
What type of atom are each of the three groups of an amino acid bonded to?
Amino acids are joined by a...
carboxal and amine
Between what two groups do 2 amino acids link?
When two amino acids join, they form a
What forms when more than two amino acids join?
Another word for long polypeptides are..
Proteins are distinguished by the sequence or order of their...
How many amino acids are there?
the kind, sequence, and number of amino acids can be different
Many kinds of proteins can be made from amino acids because....
C-N (NOTE: the C always has a double bond to an O)
What two atoms are always linked in a peptide bond?
Protein synthesis begins when a strand of ...... unravels
The code for producing a protein is carried in the sequence of the ..... in the DNA
In protein synthesis, each group of three bases forms a ...... which represents a particular amino acid.
In protein synthesis, one of the unwound strands of DNA forms a complimentary strand called
The process in which one of the unwound strands of DNA forms a complimentary strand of mRNA is called
Where does transcription take place?
In transcription, the mRNA moves into the ...... of a cell where it attaches to a .......
The process in which RNA makes proteins is called...
What carries an amino acid to a ribosome to connect and form a polypeptide chain?
At the end of a tRNA molecule are three bases called an
How many bases are in an anticodon?
Anticodons are complementary to...
For an anticodon to align with a codon, the bases on each must be....
At one end of tRNA are 3 bases. At the other end is an....
In a strand of DNA or RNA, bases attach to the ...... molecule
The sugar in DNA is .....
The sugar in RNA is .....
A, U, C, G
Bases of RNA
A, T, C, G
Bases of DNA
phosphate group, sugar, base
A nucleotide is made up of a...
Number of nucleotide strands in DNA
Number of nucleotide strands in RNA
What links together 2 different bases in a DNA strand?
DNA strand AAA-ATC-CGG-TAG... what is it's complimentary one?
What is an mRNA strand complimentary to?
Template of DNA= AAA-ATC-CGG-TAG.. what is the mRNA strand?
If an mRNA strand looks like this... UUU-UAG-GCC-AUC... what is the tRNA stand look like?
a change in the number or structure of chromosomes
any chemical change that affects the DNA of a single gene
the loss of part of a chromosome
the repetition of a segment of a chromosome
when part or a chromosome becomes oriented in the reverse of its usual direction
when part of one chromosome breaks off an attaches to another nonhomologous chromosome
Additional or missing whole chromosomes is caused by....
What kind of mutation is this? (original: ATA-ATC-CGG-TAG new: AAA-ATC-CGG-TAG)
What kind of mutation is this? (original: ATA-ATC-CGG-TAG new: ATA-ATG-CCG-GTA-G)
What kind of mutation is this? (original: ATA-ATC-CGG-TAG new: AAA-ATC-CGT-AG)
What type of mutations cause cancer?
All genetic diseases originated as....
The ability to engineer a set of genetic changes directly into an organism's DNA
Enzymes that can cut genes at very specific DNA sequences
2 different DNA molecules cut in irregular shapes have ends with complimentary bases called
In making DNA fingerprinting, the DNA is first cut with....
The zygote is ....... if it has the total potential to form a new person
When DNA makes RNA
What is transcription?
What is the genetic code in mRNA called?
Because there is more than one code for some amino acids
Why is the DNA code said to be degenerate?
What base is complimentary with guanine?
What do we call the process of RNA making proteins?
A portion of a DNA molecule that codes for one polypeptide or protein
What is a gene?
To read the mRNA codon
What is the function of the ribosome?
What base is found in RNA but not in DNA?
In the cytoplasm
Where in the cell does translation occur?
In the nucleus
Where in the cell does transcription occur?
In the nucleus
Where in the cell does replication occur?
When DNA reproduces itself
What is replication?
Non-coding sequences of bases found in DNA are called
Which is larger: DNA or mRNA?
Which is larger: mRNA or tRNA?
In the genetic code, 3 bases code for one amino acid
What is the genetic code?
How many DNA molecules are in one chromosome?
Which is larger, a chromosome or a gene?
It is the substitution of one base for another in DNA
What is a point mutation?
A frameshift of the codons. Very serious error.
The effect of a base addition or deletion in DNA is
Missing or additional chromosomes-(or parts of them)
What is an example of a chromosomal mutation?
Down Syndrome is caused by an additional 21st chromosome
Name one disorder caused by extra chromosomes.
Cystic fibrosis is caused by deleting AAA in DNA.
Name one disorder caused by deletion of bases.
Sickle Cell anemia
Name one disorder caused by a point mutation.
Substitution of valine for glutamic acid once in DNA
What is the cause of sickle cell anemia?
Turners Syndrome is caused by a missing sex chromosome
Name one chromosomal disorder caused by missing info.
What is the name of the disorder caused by having an extra X?
The base sequences in DNA that code for something.
What are exons?
Base sequences in DNA that do not code for anything.
What are introns?