Articles of confederation
The first constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. The Articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
The Annapolis Convention
Conference to discuss ways to strengthen economy
Met in Annapolis Maryland
5/13 representatives from states showed
Called for another meeting in may of the next year- Philadelphia convention-made new document, US constitution
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in congress regardless of the state's population
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Congress: the House of Representatives, in which representation is based on a state's share of the U.S. population, and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives.
three- fifth's compromise
offered at constitutional convention. Representation and taxation were to be based on the "number of free persons," plus three-fifths of the number of "all other persons" (slaves).
Supporters of the U.S. Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
a collection of 85 articles written by alexander hamilton, john jay, and james madison under the name "publius" to defend the constitution in detail.
A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Checks and Balances
Features of the Constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually constrain one another's activities.
A type of political system in which legislative power is divided between a central or federal legislature and a number of state or provincial legislatures.
a political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power.
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
A clause in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
Privileges and Immunities Clause
A clause in Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states.
The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
a theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened; an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism
Elite and Class Theory
A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization