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Boer

Farmers descended from Dutch settlers in South Africa.

Zulu

Black African warrior nation that conquered an empire in northeastern South Africa; fought both Boers and British.

Shaka

Zulu leader who used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state.

Cecil Rhodes

British imperialist; founded De Beers Diamond Company.

Boer War

War fought between descendants of Dutch settlers and British (1899-1902); Britain won, but at great cost.

Union of South Africa

Britain united Boer republics with Cape Colony to form new, independent state (1910).

ANC

African National Congress; political party in South Africa that led struggle for voting rights for black South Africans (founded 1912).

apartheid

The South African policy of separation of the races; discriminated against non-whites (instituted in 1948).

pass books

Contained finger-prints, photo, and information to travel to non-black areas; all black South Africans were required to carry them during apartheid era.

Afrikaners

The more modern name for the white South Africans descended from Dutch settlers (earlier known as Boers).

Sharpeville Massacre

South African police shot non-violent protesters (protesting against pass laws) in Sharpeville township; 69 deaths (1960).

Nelson Mandela

Leader of ANC; imprisoned for over 26 years for his activities against apartheid system; elected first black president of South Africa (1994).

Afrikaans

Language spoken by the Afrikaners (Boers) in South Africa.

Soweto Massacre

Black South African students protested against their education being conducted in Afrikaans; police opened fire and killed approximately 176 protesters (1976).

Bantu education

Education system under apartheid where black South African students were taught how to do menial jobs only.

Stephen Biko

Leader of black pride movement in South Africa during apartheid era; beaten to death by police (1977).

Desmond Tutu

Non-violent leader of effort to isolate South Africa internationally in order to force end of apartheid system.

boycott

Refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies.

township

In South Africa, poor black neighborhoods on outskirts of major cities.

Johannesburg

Largest city in South Africa; site of Rugby World Cup Final (1995).

Cape Colony

Dutch colony at southern tip of South Africa; later renamed Cape Town; taken over by British in 1814.

F.W. de Klerk

Last white South African to win election as president of South Africa; legalized the ANC and also released Nelson Mandela from prison (1990).

IFP

Inkatha Freedom Party; Zulu-dominated rival of ANC; used violence in period between Mandela's release and his election.

rainbow nation

Nelson Mandela's vision of a multi-racial democracy in South Africa.

TRC

Truth and Reconciliation Commission; established to deal with crimes of apartheid era.

Springboks

South African national rugby team; seen as symbol of apartheid era by black South Africand before 1995.

Robben Island

Island off coast of South Africa where Nelson Mandela served his sentence from 1964 until his release in 1990.

Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika

South African national anthem; song once banned by apartheid era government.

Xhosa

Black South African speakers of Bantu languages living in southeastern South Africa; Mandela's tribe.

Invictus

Latin for unconquered; poem by William Ernest Henley inspired Nelson Mandela while in prison.

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