Black African warrior nation that conquered an empire in northeastern South Africa; fought both Boers and British.
Zulu leader who used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state.
War fought between descendants of Dutch settlers and British (1899-1902); Britain won, but at great cost.
Union of South Africa
Britain united Boer republics with Cape Colony to form new, independent state (1910).
African National Congress; political party in South Africa that led struggle for voting rights for black South Africans (founded 1912).
The South African policy of separation of the races; discriminated against non-whites (instituted in 1948).
Contained finger-prints, photo, and information to travel to non-black areas; all black South Africans were required to carry them during apartheid era.
The more modern name for the white South Africans descended from Dutch settlers (earlier known as Boers).
South African police shot non-violent protesters (protesting against pass laws) in Sharpeville township; 69 deaths (1960).
Leader of ANC; imprisoned for over 26 years for his activities against apartheid system; elected first black president of South Africa (1994).
Black South African students protested against their education being conducted in Afrikaans; police opened fire and killed approximately 176 protesters (1976).
Education system under apartheid where black South African students were taught how to do menial jobs only.
Leader of black pride movement in South Africa during apartheid era; beaten to death by police (1977).
Non-violent leader of effort to isolate South Africa internationally in order to force end of apartheid system.
Dutch colony at southern tip of South Africa; later renamed Cape Town; taken over by British in 1814.
F.W. de Klerk
Last white South African to win election as president of South Africa; legalized the ANC and also released Nelson Mandela from prison (1990).
Inkatha Freedom Party; Zulu-dominated rival of ANC; used violence in period between Mandela's release and his election.
South African national rugby team; seen as symbol of apartheid era by black South Africand before 1995.
Island off coast of South Africa where Nelson Mandela served his sentence from 1964 until his release in 1990.
Black South African speakers of Bantu languages living in southeastern South Africa; Mandela's tribe.