# Chem Chapter 14

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### Boyle's Law

For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure.

### Charles's Law

The volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature, if the pressure is kept constant.

### Dalton's Law

At constant volume and temperature, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.

### Graham's Law

The rate at which a gas will effuse is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's molar
mass.

### Gay-Lussac's Law

The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the volume is kept constant.

### ideal gas law

P x V = n x R x T

### effusion

the escape of gas through a small hole in a container

### compressibility

a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure

### diffusion

tendency of molecules to move to regions of lower concentration

### partial pressure

the pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture

### Why is a gas easier to compress than a liquid or a solid?

The volume of a gas's particles is small compared to the overall volume of the gas.

### Why does the pressure inside a container of gas increase if more gas is added to the container?

There is an increase in the number of collisions between particles and the walls of the container.

### If the volume of a container of gas is reduced, what will happen to the pressure inside the container?

The pressure will increase.

It increases.

### What happens to the temperature of a gas when it is compressed?

The temperature increases.

### As the temperature of the gas in a balloon decreases, which of the following occurs?

The volume of the balloon increases.

### What happens to the pressure of a gas inside a container if the temperature of the gas decreases?

The pressure decreases.

### If 4 moles of gas are added to a container that already holds 1 mole of gas, how will the pressure change inside the container?

The pressure will be five times higher.

### Why does air escape from a tire when the tire valve is opened?

The pressure outside the tire is lower than the pressure inside the tire.

### Which of these changes would NOT cause an increase in the pressure of a contained gas?

The volume of the container is increased.

move faster

### The volume of a gas is doubled while the temperature is held constant. How does the gas pressure change?

It is reduced by one half.

### When the temperature and number of particles of a gas are constant, which of the following is also constant?

the product of the pressure and volume

It increases.

It increases.

### When the volume and number of particles of a gas are constant, which of the following is also constant?

the ratio of the pressure and temperature in kelvins

### What happens when a piston is used to decrease the volume of a contained gas?

Gas particles become compressed.

### The combined gas law relates which of the following?

temperature, pressure, and volume

number of moles

### At a certain temperature and pressure, 0.20 mol of carbon dioxide has a volume of 3.1 L. A 3.1-L sample of hydrogen at the same temperature and pressure ____.

contains the same number of molecules

ideal gas law

PV / T

### Under what conditions of temperature and pressure is the behavior of real gases most like that of ideal gases?

low temperature and high pressure

It increases.

It is doubled.

hydrogen

argon

increase

0.40 L

36 mL

### If a balloon containing 3000 L of gas at 39°C and 99 kPa rises to an altitude where the pressure is 45.5 kPa and the temperature is 16°C, the volume of the balloon under these new conditions would be calculated using the following conversion factor ratios: ____.

3000 L x (289 / 312) x (99 / 45.5)

18.5 kPa

diffusion

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