AP 2 Final Exam Cumulative

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Which of the following is NOT true?

e. Leucopenia is an increase in white blood cell count that occurs during infection.

A person with type B positive blood receives a transfusion of type AB positive blood. What will happen?

c. The recipient's antibodies will react with the donor's red blood cells.

Which of the following is the correct route of blood through the heart from the systemic circulation to the pulmonary circulation and back to the systemic circulation?

e. right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve.

The external boundary between the atria and ventricles is the

c. coronary sulcus

The chamber of the heart with the thickest myocardium is the

b. left ventricle

Major branch from the ascending aorta; passes inferior to the left auricle

d. left coronary artery

Lies in the coronary sulcus; drains the right ventricle and right atrium

a. small cardiac vein

Which of the following represents the correct pathway for conduction of an action potential through the heart?

e. SA node, AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

Which of the following is NOT true?

d. The vagus nerves release norepinephrine, causing the heart rate to increase

The buffy coat of centrifuged blood consists mainly of

d. white blood cells and platelets

The formed elements that are fragments of larger cells called megakaryocytes are

d. thrombocytes

Type AB blood contains

c. neither antibody A nor B

The first heart sound (the lubb of lubb-dupp) is caused by the

closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves

The tunica interna of a blood vessel is made of

d. endothelium

Blood flow increases if

a. vasodilation increases

Hormones that cause vasoconstriction are

e. all answers are correct (angiotensin II, angiotensin, epinephrine, vasopressin)

The remnant of the foramen ovale, an opening in the interatrial septum of the fetal heart.

e. fossa ovalis

The percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs is called the

b. hematocrit

This regulates the differentiation and proliferation of red blood cells

a. erythropoietin

The function of hemoglobin is to

d. carry oxygen

When red blood cells wear out, the iron is saved and the remainder of the hemoglobin is

b. excreted as bile pigments

Too few white blood cells is called

b. leucopenia

Platelets initially stick to the wall of a damaged blood vessel because

a. exposed collagen fibers make a rough surface to which the platelets are attracted

A clot that moves is called

b. embolism

Type O is considered the theoretical universal

b. donor because there are no A or B antigens on RBCs

The purpose for giving RhoGAM to women who have just deliver a child or who have had a miscarriage or abortion is to

e. block recognition of any fetal red blood cells by the mother's immune system

A deficiency of Vitamin B12 results in

b. pernicious anemia

A hereditary anemia that is more prevalent among African Americans

e. sickle cell anemia

The layer of the heart wall responsible for its pumping action is the

d. myocardium

Blood flows into the coronary arteries from the

e. ascending aorta or arch

The atrioventricular valves open when

c. ventricular pressure falls below atrial pressure

The left ventricle wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to

c. pump blood with greater pressure since the left side feeds the entire body except the lungs

The function of intercalated discs is to

d. provide a mechanism for rapid conduction of action potentials among myofibers

The initiation of the heart beat is the responsibility of the

d. CA node

The presence of acetylcholine in the heart

b. decreases the rate of hearbeat

The heart rate is monitored and regulated in the

d. medulla

Another name for heart attack

c. myocardial infarction

Causes an increase in heart rate

a. epinephrine

The tunica intima

c. is the inner, endothelial layer of arteries and veins

The connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in fetal circulation is called

b. ductus arteriosus

The function of Baroreceptors is to monitor changes in

d. blood pressure

The basilar artery is formed by the union of the

b. vertebral arteries

The first major branch of the aorta below the diaphragm is the

c. celiac artery

Blood in the vertebral veins flows next into the

b. brachiocephalic veins

Blood in the great saphenous vein flows into the

a. femoral vein

Vessels that are part of the cerebral arterial circle (Circle of Willis) include the

c. internal carotid arteries

Blood flows directly into the superior vena cava from the

b. brachiocephalic veins

A person with type A Rh- blood can receive a transfusion with blood of which of the following types?

e. both c and d (A-, O-)

Which of the following is NOT a formed element?

d. Plasma

Cross-sectional area is greatest in

c. capillary

The percentage of each type of white blood cell

d. differential white blood cell count

Measures number of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets per ul of blood

c. complete blood count

Measures the rate of erythropoiesis

a. reticulocyte count

A softball player is found to have a resting cardiac output of 5.0 liters per minute and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute. What is her stroke volume?

b. 100ml

The superficial dense, irregular connective tissue covering of the heart

c. fibrous pericardium

Outer layer of the serous pericardium; is fused to the fibrous pericardium

d. parietal pericardium

Inner visceral layer of the pericardium; adheres tightly to the surface of the heart

a. epicardium

Endothelial cells lining the interior of the heart; are continuous with the endothelium of the blood vessels

e. endocardium

The lowest blood pressure in arteries during ventricular relaxation

e. diastolic blood pressure

a slow resting heart rate or pulse rate

c. bradycardia

An inadequate cardiac output that results in a failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body cells

a. shock

Returns oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetal liver

e. umbilical veins

An opening in the septum between the right and left atria

e. foramen ovale

Becomes the ligamentum venosum after birth

a. ductus venosus

passes blood from the fetus to the placenta

d. umbilical arteries

Bypasses the nonfunctioning lungs; becomes the ligamentum arterosum at birth

b. ductus arteriosus

Transport oxygenated blood into the inferior vena cava

a. ductus venosus

becomes the fossa ovalis after birth

c. foramen ovale

Pressure generated by the pumping of the heart; pushes fluids out of capillaries

b. blood hydrostatic pressure

Pressure created by proteins present in the interstitial fluids; pulls fluid out of capillaries

c. interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

Determines whether blood volume and interstitial fluid remain steady or change

a. net filtration pressure

Force due to presence of plasma proteins; pulls fluid into capillaries from interstitial spaces

e. blood colloid osmotic pressure

Pressure due to fluid in interstitial spaces; pushes fluid back into capillaries

d. interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure

What is the first step in blood hemostasis?

b. Vasospasm

What is the process by with RED blood cells are formed?

a. Erythropoiesis

What does stimulating the sympathetic nerve fibers going to the muscular artery do to the diameter of the artery

b. decreases it

What does stimulating the nerve fiber do to blood pressure?

a. increases it

Indicates ventricular repolarization

d. T wave

represents atrial depolarization

b. P wave

represents the onset of ventricular depolarization

c. QRS complex

hides atrial repolarization

c. QRS complex

White blood cell showing a kidney-shaped nucleus; capable of phagocytosis

c. monocytes

Occur as B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells

e. lymphocytes

Combat the effects of histamine and other mediators of inflammation in allergic reactions; also phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes

a. eosinophils

Respond to tissue destruction by bacteria; release lysozyme, strong oxidants, and defensins

d. neutrophils

Involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions; are involved in hypersensitivity reactions

b. basophils

period of time when cardiac muscle fibers are contracting and exerting force but not shortening

d. isovlumetric contraction

period of time when semilunar valves are open and blood flows out of the ventricles

c. ventricular ejection

amount of blood ejected per beat by each ventricle

b. stroke volume

difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and cardiac output at rest

a. cardiac reserve

Supplies blood to the kidney

d. renal artery

Supply blood to the lower limbs

e. common iliac arteries

Supply blood to the brain

b. carotid arteries

Supplies blood to the large intestine

a. inferior mesenteric

Supplies blood to the stomach, liver and pancreas

c. celiac trunk

drains blood from the small intestine, portions of the large intestine, stomach and pancreas

b. superior mesenteric vein

drain oxygenated blood from the lungs and carry it to the left atrium

d. pulmonary veins

drain blood from the head

e. jugular veins

drain most of the thorax and abdominal wall; can serve as a bypass for the inferior vena cava.

e. azygous veins

a part of the venous circulation of the leg; a vessel used in heart bypass surgery

a. saphenous vein

A person's T cells must be able to recognize the person's own MHC molecules, a process known as self-recognition, and lack reactivity to peptide fragments, a condition known as self-tolerance

a. This statement is TRUE

Which of the following are NOT functions of the lymphatic system?

c. Transporting nucleic acids

Which of the following are NOT mechanical factors that help fight pathogens and disease?

d. Interferons

Which of the following are functions of antibodies?

e. All of the above (neutralization of antigens, immobilization of bacteria, agglutination and precipitation of antigens, activation of complement)

Antibody-mediated immunity works mainly against

c. extracellular pathogens

The thoracic duct empties lymph into the

c. left subclavian vein

In cell-mediated immunity, the antigenic cell/molecule is destroyed by

a. Killer T cells

The most common structural class of antibody molecule is

c. IgG

Giving someone an intravenous injection of immunoglobulin would

a. Protect him from a specific disease by giving him passively acquired immunity

Receiving an immunization with an altered form of the tetanus toxin results in

c. Artificially acquired active immunity

The composition of lymph is most similar to

d. interstitial fluid

Specialized lymphatic capillaries called lacteals are found in

c. small intestine

People who are confined to bed for long periods of time often develop edema because

c. without skeletal muscle contraction to force lymph through lymphatic vessels, fluid tends to accumulate in interstitial spaces

Which of the following correctly lists the structures according to the sequence of fluid flow?

d. Blood capillaries, interstitial spaces, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, subclavian veins

Which of the following is NOT a function of the spleen?

a. Site of stem cell maturation into T and B cells

Which of the following is NOT considered a function of the respiratory system?

b. Production of red blood cells

Air pressure in the middle ear is equalized via the auditory tube, which opens into the

c. nasopharynx

Airway resistance is affected primarily by the

d. diameter of the bronchioles

On a very humid day, people with chronic respiratory disease may experience greater difficulty breathing because

c. Water vapor contributes a greater partial pressure to inhaled air, thus interfering with normal gradients of other respiratory gases

Where would you expect to find the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?

e. in the intracellular fluid

The most important muscle of inhalation is the diaphragm

a. This statement is TRUE

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

e. Surface tension of alveolar fluid facilitates inhalation

Which of the following does NOT affect the rate of external respiration?

e. presence of bis-phosphoglycerate

For inhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be __ than atmospheric pressure; for exhalation to occur, air pressure in the alveoli must be __ than atmospheric pressure.

b. less, greater

Deep abdominal breathing is also referred to as

d. diaphragmatic breathing

Most oxygen is transported in blood by

a. the heme portion of hemoglobin

The basic pattern of breathing is set by nuclei of neurons located in the

c. medulla oblongata

Carbonic acid is produced when

c. carbon dioxide combines with water

Most carbon dioxide is transported in blood by

d. conversion to bicarbonate ion

Which of the following muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity during forced inspiration?

b. External intercostals

When the diaphragm contracts

e. all of the above are correct (size of chest cavity increases, lungs expand to fill extra space in chest cavity, air from outside rushes into lungs, intrathoracic pressure decreases)

Which of the following is NOT a function of the nose?

e. gas exchange

Which of the following lists the structures in the correct order of air flow?

c. Nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea

The function of the epiglottis is to

d. close off the larynx during swallowing

What is the anatomic name of the structure known as the Adam's apple

e. thyroid cartilage

Bronchioles have a lot of cartilage in their walls

b. This statement is FALSE

Where does gas exchange between the air and the blood occur?

d. alveoli

What is the wall of alveoli primarily composed of?

b. Simple squamous epithelium

What two muscle contract during normal, resting inspiration?

a. Diaphragm, external intercostals

What happens to intrapulmonary pressure during inspiration?

b. It falls below atmospheric pressure

What does parasymphathetic nerve activity (acetylcholine) do to the bronchioles?

a. Constricts

How high does the partial pressure of oxygen get in the blood?

c. the same as in the alveoli

How many oxygen molecules can be transported by each hemoglobin molecule?

d. 4

Which nerve is used to stimulate the diaphragm for inspiration?

b. phrenic

What does an increase in carbon dioxide do to breathing?

a. Increases it

What happens to carbon dioxide levels in the blood if someone hyperventilates?

b. decreases it

What does a decrease in oxygen levels do to breathing?

a. Increases it

What does a decrease in arterial pH do to breathing?

a. Increases it

Which receptors are more likely to respond to a dramatic decrease in PO2

b. peripheral chemoreceptors

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