Fetal Pig Structures & Functions

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Pinna

External part of ear in mammals; the auricle; used for hearing

External Nares

Nostrils of the pig; used in smell

Mammary Papilla

Nipples on the ventral of the pig; Used for breast feeding in females; On the two sides of the umbilical cord

Umbilical Cord

Supplies fetus with nutrients and other resources while in the mother's uterus; attaches to the placenta

Umbilical Vein

brings oxygenated blood to the fetus fromplacenta

Umbilical Arteries

Along the urinary bladder; brings de-oxygenated blood from the fetus

Genital Papilla

Only found in females; will develop into a vagina

Urogenital opening

Only in males; Part of male excretory and reproductive systems

Scrotal Sac

Only in males; contains the testes

Thymus Gland

Regulates and stimulates the immune system

Thyroid Gland

regulates metabolism; produces thyroxin and calcium

Adrenal Glands

Produces steroidal hormones

Pancreatic Islets

Control blood sugar levels

Trachea

Lined air tube; between larynx and bronchi in which air travels to the lungs

6 Lobes of the Lung

Organ consisting of spongy tissue which exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood

Diaphragm

Sheet of muscle forming the bottom wall of the chest cavity; contracts while inhaling and relaxes while exhaling; separates thorax from abdomen

Tongue

muscular organ in the mouth; used for chewing, tasting, and swallowing; begins chemical digestion

Esophagus

Muscle-encased tube of alimentary canal that transports food from the pharynx to the stomach; Mechanical digestion

Stomach

Elastic, muscular sac where both chemical and
mechanical digestion take place; between small
Intestine and esophagus

Pancreas

Gland that makes digestive enzymes and secretes them into the small intestine; secretes insulin and
Glucagon into the blood; located behind the stomach

Liver

largest organ in the body; maintains metabolism; produces bile; stores glucose as glycogen; transforms ammonia to urea

Gallbladder

Organ that stores bile from the liver and releases it into the small intestine

Small Intestine

Long, narrow tube where most absorption occurs

Cecum

Pouch between the conjunction of the intestines; receives waste products coming from the small intestine

Large Intestine/Spiral Colon

Takes waste out of the body; removes water from waste products; stems from the cecum to the rectum

Rectum

Bottom segment of large intestine; leads to the anus

Anus

Place where solid waste products exit the body; basically a hole on the exterior

Heart

Multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

Coronary Arteries & Veins

Bring nutrients and blood to the heart; removes waste products

Superior and Inferior Vena Cava

Bring de-oxygenated blood from the upper and lower thorax into the right atrium; located next to the aorta

Right Atrium

Receives de-oxgenated blood from the vena cavas; pumps it through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle

Right Ventricle

Receives deoxygenated blood from the tricuspid valve and pumps it through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve

Pulmonary Artery

Blood vessel that receives deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary semi-lunar valve and carries it to the lungs

Pulmonary Veins

Take the reoxygenated blood from the lungs towards the heart; delivers it to the left atrium

Left Atrium

Recieves oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins and pumps it through the bicuspid valve

Left Ventricle

Receives oxygenated blood from the bicuspid and pumps it through the aortic semi-lunar valve; more muscular than the right ventricle

Aorta

Artery that delivers oxygenated blood to the rest of the body; Three different branches emerge

Ductus Arteriosis

Blood vessel in fetuses; attaches pulmonary artery to aorta; closes shortly after birth

Foramen Ovale

Small hole in septum between the two atriums

Spleen

Produces and removes blood cells; part of immune system

Renal Arteries

Supplies oxygenated blood to the kidneys

Renal Veins

Removes deoxygenated blood from the kidneys

Kidneys

Main organ of excretory system; excretes waste products; regulates water and salt balance

Urinary Bladder

Sac that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body

Urethra

Tube leading from urinary bladder through which urine exits the body

Ovaries

Female reproductive organ that produces egg cells and hormones

Oviducts

Passageway that moves eggs away from the ovary and towards the uterus; usual site of fertilization

Uterus

Found in female mammals; area where young are usually conceived and develop into a fetus

Vagina

Functions as a birth canal; Passageway for menstrual flow; Receives the penis in reproduction; Leads uterus to body's exterior

Testes

Two sperm producing organs contained in the scrotum

Epididymus

Long, thin, coiled tube where sperm mature and are stored

Ductus Deferens

Tube that serves as a passageway for sperm between the epididymus and urethra

Seminal Vesicles

Secrete fluids and semen that help carry the sperm; located behind the bladder

Bulbourethral Glands

Pea-sized glands; located on both sides of the urethra; gives off seminal fluid to the urethra

Penis

Male reproductive organ; contains the urethra and also serves to eliminate urine from the body

Dorsal

Towards the surface of a quadraped's back

Ventral

Towards the underside of a quadraped

Medial

Towards the median plane; middle of body

Lateral

Pertaining to the side of the body

Cranial

Towards the head

Caudal

Towards the tail

Proximal

The end of the limb near its attachment

Distal

End of limb farthest from attachment

Anterior

Towards the front

Posterior

Towards the back

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