lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
an estate; from a few acres to hundreds of square miles; also included the peasants that worked the land
a mounted warrior who had great prestige in the Middle Ages; they dominated warfare in Europe
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
the most severe penalty for refusing to obey Church laws; if you were excommunicated - could not be buried on sacred ground and could not receive the sacraments
popes consider this to be their "spiritual weapon"; what you faced if you violated Church laws; which excluded an entire town, region, or kingdom from participating in most sacraments and from receiving Christian burial
a tax equal to a tenth of one's income; this idea existed in ancient religions before Christianity; used to help the poor
written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town -- in return for the charter, merchants paid the lord or the king a large sum of money or a yearly fee or both
money for investments, spurred the growth of banking houses; banking houses were needed when merchants pooled their money together to finance big projects that would have been impossible for individual traders
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
a trainee in a particular trade; a long process that youngsters went through to obtain membership in a guild (around 7 or 8 yrs. of age)
a fine, the amount paid by the wrongdoer to the family of the person he or she had injured or killed; translates as "money for a man"
a means of determining guilt in Germanic law; it was based on the idea of divine intervention; all involved a physical trial of some sort for example using red hot irons
also called diocese; a group of parishes headed by a bishop --- his area of authority is called this
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to pursue a life of total dedication to God
people sent out to carry a religious message; also focuses on converting non-Christians to Christianity
writing rooms where monks copied the works of early Christianity, such as the Bible, but also the works of Latin classical authors
a political system and a social system where by a powerful lord would offer "protection" in return for "service"
an unwritten set of rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal - the major obligation was to perform military service (40 days a year)
laws that were common to the whole kingdom --- this began to replace law codes that varied from place to place
another term for "classes" of people [the clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), townspeople & peasants (third estate)]
military expeditions to gain (regain) the Holy Land from the Muslims (from 11th to the 13th centuries)