← Holt Biology Chapter 23-26 Plants Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Whats the difference between the male & female gametophytes? An immature male gametophyte has a thick protective wall. The female gametophyte develops inside an ovule. Antheridium the male sex organ of spore-producing plants Archegonium a female sex organ occurring in most gymnosperms What are the major parts of the seed? Pollen tube, Seed Coat, Cotyledons What are the structure of leaves, stems, & roots? Leaves-- absorb sunlight. Stems-- support the leaves, & carry water & food from place to place. Roots-- absorbs nutrients and store food. What are the major parts of a flower? Sepals, petals, stamens, anther, pistils, ovary. What is the function of the stomatta? Small slits in the epidermis help exchange gases. What is the function of guard cells? They regulate exchange of water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide. What is he difference between annuals, biennials, and perennials.? A biennial plant lives two years. A annual plant lives for one year. A perennial lives for many years how do plant hormones control plant growth? They signal molecules produced within the plant. germination the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow What is a pollen tube & its function? Enables a sperm to pass directly to an egg What is a seed coat & its function? The outer cell layers of an ovule harden to protect the seed. What are cotyledons & their function? Leaflike structures that help transfer nutrients to the embryo. What is a sepal & its function? Protects the flower from damage while its still a bud. What are petals & their function? Attracts pollinators. What is a stamen & its function? Produces pollen. What is an anther & its function? A threadlike filament which each stamen is made of. What are pistils & their function? Produces ovules. What is an ovary & its function? A stalk that pollen lands on and sticks to the stigma. nonvascular plant a plant that lacks specialized tissues to move water and nutrients and true roots, stems, and leaves Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts nonvascular plants vascular plants have tissues made of cells that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant gymnosperm a woody, vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit, nonflowering angiosperm a flowering plant that produces seeds within a fruit ferns, horsetails, club moses seedless, vascular plants gymnosperms, angiosperms vascular seed plants rhizoid a rootlike structure in nonvascular plants that holds the plants in place and helps plants get water and nutrients rhizome an underground stem from which new leaves and roots grow pollen the tiny granules that contain the male gametophyte of seed plants pollination the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the female structures of seed plants conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophytes examples of gymnosperms monocots and dicots two classes of angiosperms xylem the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots phloem the tissue that conducts food in vascular plants sepal in a flower, one of the outermost rings of modified leaves that protect the flower bud petal one of the ring or rings of the usually brightly colored, leaf-shaped parts of a flower stamen the male reproductive structure of a flower that produces pollen and consists of an anther at the tip of a filament pistil the female reproductive part of a flower that produces seeds and consists of an ovary, style, and stigma ovary in flowering plants, the lower part of a pistil that produces eggs in ovules How do flowers help plants? Flowers help plants reproduce.