American Cultures Final

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words and stuff

Middle Passage

a voyage that brought Africans to the West Indies and North America to be enslaved

Dehumanization

the process of breaking down a person so they feel that they are not human

Fugitive Slave Act

let any slave that escaped be recaptured and taken back to the South

Underground Railroad

a system of routes along which runaway slaves were helped to escape to Canada and free states

Abolitionist

someone who fought against slavery

Secession

when the southern states withdrew from the northern states to form the confederacy

Union

the group of states that did not succeed from the USA

Confederacy

a confederation formed in 1861 by southern states who succeed from the Union

Battle of Gettysburg

the turning point battle of the civil war from July 1-3

Abraham Lincoln

the 16th president who freed the slaves

Emancipation Proclamation

an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 freeing slaves behind confederate lines

13th Amendment

freed all slaves and outlawed all slavery

Reconstruction

the period of rebuilding After the civil war in the united states

Black Codes

discriminatory laws against Africans

Sharecropping

a system in which landowners give farm workers land, see and tools in return for part of their crops

Freedman's Bureau

a federal agency set up to help black people after the civil war

Jim Crow

a person who created southern laws to separate blacks from whites

Stereotype

a preconceived notion about a race

Push Factor

a factor that makes a person want to leave an area/country

Pull Factor

a factor that attracts people to another country

Ellis Island

the immigration center on the East where immigrants entered the USA

Urban

an area with high population and diversity. often a city

Urbanization

the growth of cities

Rural

area with low population and farms

Tenement

a multifamily urban home usually over crowded and unsanitary

The Jungle

a novel about the dangerous and unhealthy conditions of the meatpacking industry during that time (1906)

Edwin L. Drake

he used a steam engine to get oil; first to practice drilling

Thomas Edison

established first research lab, incandescent light bulb, made urban travel cheep

Lewis Latimer

helped Alexander Graham Bell create light bulb and was said to be the real inventor (African American)

Alexander Graham Bell

created the telephone and worked on light bulb

George Pullman

build a manufacture for sleepers (cars on a railroad) and a town

Andrew Carnegie

created vertical and horizontal integration (a way of thinking), a steel company and one of the richest men to live

John D. Rockefeller

richest man ever; monopolized oil industry

Industrial Revolution

a major change in the US from farms to factories

Natural resource

a material that comes from the earth

Steel

remaining carbon from iron

Triangle Factory Fire

a large fire that broke out in a clothing factory that really started worker unions

Nationalism

a devotion to the interests and culture of ones nation

Militarism

the policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparation for war and their use as a tool of diplomacy

Alliances

the countries that were in agreement to be in peace and help each other in time of war

Allied Powers

the group of nations-led by Great Britain, France, Russia and the US-that opposed the Central Powers in WWI

Imperialism

the policy of extending a nations authority over other countries by economic, political or military means

Central Powers

the group of nations-led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire-that opposed the Allies in WWI

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

the heir to the Austrian throne who was assassinated

Trench Warfare

a battle field strategy where opposing sides attacked each other from a system of dithces

U-Boat

German word for submarine

Lusitania

a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915

Zimmerman Note

a message sent by Germany telling Mexico they would help them reclaim land from the US if the US entered the war

Propaganda

a kind of biased communication designed to influence peoples thoughts and actions

Woodrow Wilson

28th President of the United States

Progressive

an early 20th century movement trying to return control of government to people, restore economic opportunity and correct mistakes in American history

Political Machine

well organized political organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes

Suffrage

the right to vote

19th Amendment

gave women the right to vote

Alice Paul

woman's suffrage leader who helped form the National Woman's Party

Susan B. Anthony

social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States

Conservation

the planned management of natural resources, protecting wildness and development for the common good

Ida B. Wells

Women activist who lead the protest against lynching

KKK

(Ku Klux Klan) an organization that used terrorist tactics to restore white supremacy

The Great Migration

a large scale migration of African Americas from the south to the Northern cities

The Harlem Renaissance

a time of rebirth in African American culture that started in Harlem, New York during the 1920s

W.E.B. Du Bois

demanded complete equality for Blacks and helped start the NAACP

Booker T. Washington

Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues

Marcus Garvey

led the Universal Negro Improvement Association and his "back to Africa" movement

UNIA

universal negro improvement association; founded by Marcus Garvey to end racism through separation of races

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; an organization that promoted full racial equality

Langston Hughes

leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"

Al Capone

United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)

Prohibition

the banning of the manufacture, sale and possession of alcohol from 1920-1933

Bootleggers

a person who smuggled alcohol into the US during Prohibition

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

Weakness of Treaty of Versailles

made Germany admit to starting war and humiliated them:::did not include Russia who became determined to get territory back:::ignored the needs of colonized people who wanted same rights as people in the west

Al Capons Childhood

respectable parents, dropped out of school in 6th grade, lived in a tenement, born in 1899

Al Scarface

made a rude comment to a girl and her brother cut his face

Al Businesses

organized crimes, bootlegging, speakeasies, gangs and mobs

Al Jury

juries knew if they convicted him they would die

St. Valentines Day Massacre

1929, very violent, Al's men went and killed four of Al's enemies

Al Finally Convicted of..

tax evasion

Al Death

cardiac arrest

Espionage and Sedition Act

Two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US participation in WWI

Flu Pandemic

a global outbreak of influenza in 1918

Madame C.J. Walker

leading African American entrepreneur who was one of the first women in the United States to become a millionaire

Rent Parties

parties thrown at ones home to help make money to pay rent. often during Harlem

Changes in Fashion for Women

heels, shorter skirts, skin color stockings, flapper dresses

Double Standard

a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women

Opportunities at Work for Women

offices, stores, factories, 10 million women earning their own

Changing Families

dropped birth rate, birth control made legal, equality in marriage, children worked less

369th Infantry Regiment

most famous African American regiment which earned the Croix de Guerre for their bravery in fighting for France

Why did support for Prohibition dwindle?

Most people liked to drink and they saw it did more bad than good

Shellshock

Mental injuries caused by the stress of war

Impact war had on young soldiers?

They start out hopeful and think war will be heroic. Then they start fighting and become killers. Battle field becomes home and grave.

Dead Rooms

rooms where dying soldiers would go if they had no hope of living

Alliance System

when two or more countries enter an agreement to defend one another

Trip from US to Europe and dangers

2 week trip. being shot down by submarines

Why were letters home encouraged?

so soldiers wouldnt get home sick

Why were letters heavily censored?

they didnt want secrets getting out or people knowing where they were

Goal of UNIA

gain equality and respect for blacks

Why did America join WWI?

Because of Lusitania being blown up by German subs. 128 Americans died

Muckraker

journalist who wrote about corrupt side of business and public life

Initiative

a bill made by the people rather than law makers

Referendum

a vote on an initiative

Recall

let voters remove officials from elected positions before their terms are up

Issues immigrants in US faced?

assimilation, americanization, housing, jobs, money, language

How did Great Migration contribute to Harlem Ren?

blacks headed north and to large cities such as Harlem so everyone was together in one place

Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBious differ?

Washington wanted things still separate in some ways but not in others he wanted everyone to stop working. DuBios wanted them to go to collage and get jobs in the goverment

Primary Source

written during the time being studied

Secondary Source

Text and/or artifacts that are not original, but written from something original (biographies, magazine articles, research papers).

When did Civil War start?

1861

When did Civil War end?

1865 confederacy surrendered

Bull Run

1861
south won

Hampton Roads

1862
draw. first iorn clad

Antietam

1862
south won

Ft. Wagner

1863
south won

Stonewall Jackson

led south, died during one of battles

Ulysses S. Grant

led north, won the war

Robert E. Lee

led south, was at offical surrender

Carla Baton

union nurse, founded Red Cross

Jefferson Davis

president of confederacy, didnt want to be at war

Conscription

drafting citizens for milatary

Gettysburg Adress

speach by lincoln thanking those who gave lives at Gettysburg

Appomattox court House

Where Lee surrendered to Grant in 1865

John Wilkes Booth

assasinated Lincoln in 1865

Consequences of CW

assasination, goverment controlled by citizens, income tzx, debt, north ritcher, free slaves, segratgation, draft, land destroyed, 2% population dead, 8% casulaties

Proplems faced CW

reunitng nation, status of free slaves, what would replace slavery

Lincoln Goals

wanted nation as one (leader goal) and slavery gone (personal goal)

Lincoln and Slaves

willing to free all, none or some of the slaves to keep nation together

Migrate

the movement of a large group of people from one area to antoher

When did Great Migration start?

1916

Methods to draw people north?

labor agents passed out train passes to some, adds, success stories

Cost of Journey north

started at 2 cents and then rose to 24 cents (per mile)

National Urban League

1911, helped blacks transition from rural to urban cities

Red Summer 1919

black kids went swimming in white area and stoned. black man arrest but no white man. riot started. 38 people died. 1000 people left homelless.

Schools Miserable

strick rules and physical punishment

Kindergarten created

child care for employed mothers

% at School

62% of whites and 34% of blacks

Voter Restrictions

regersting to vote. had to pass. made harder for blacks. grandfather clause and tax

Plessy v. Ferguson

court case that tested Jum Crow laws. ruled as separate but equal.

Suffragist

a person who fights for a women to have the right to vote

Womens Christian Temperance Union

largest temperance group

Speakeasies

illegal establishemtnts that served alcohol run by gangsters

Bathtub Gin

illegal alcohol made by small families

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