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The amount of light and temperature are examples of what type of factors? (1)

to respond

What is homeostasis? (1)

the ability to maintain an internal environment

What atoms make up one molecule of water? (2)

hydrogen and oxygen

Why does ice float on water? (2)

it has a lower density

A substance with a pH of 6 is called a ________? (2)

base

If a reaction in one direction releases energy, the reaction in the opposite direction does what? (2)

absorbs energy

What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started? (2)

activation energy

The following is a food chain: algae > Zooplankton > Small fishes > Squid > Shark. What are algae called? (3)

producer

What is nitrogen fixation? (3)

convert nitrogen to ammonia

What element is most likely to be a limiting nutrient in a freshwater pond? (3)

phosphorus

What cell structure controls many of the cell's activities? (7)

nucleus

Which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus: cytoplasm, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA?(7)

cytoplasm

Which organelle breaks down compounds into small particles that the cell can use? (7)

lysosomes

Which of the following is an organ of the digestive system: stomach, nerve tissue, muscle cell, epithelial tissue? (7)

stomach

What is the thin flexible barrier around a cell called? (7)

cell membrane

What do prokaryotes lack? (7)

nucleus

What term refers to cells having different tasks in an organism? (7)

cell specialization

What are the products of the light-dependent reactions? (8)

ATP

What part of the ATP molecule must the bonds be broken to form an ADP molecule? (8)

phosphate group

List the three things that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs? (8)

a shortage of sunlight, water, temperature

What is the starting molecule for glycolysis? (9)

glucose

During one turn, the Krebs cycle produces what molecule? (9)

citrise acid

Breathing heavily after running a race is your body's way of doing what? (9)

recycling oxygen

Name the stage of cellular aerobic respiration that takes place in the cytoplasm. (9)

citric acid production

At what phase of the cell cycle is a cell's DNA replicated? (10)

interphase

Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to do what? (10)

control cell growth

What is a tumor? (10)

uncontrolled cell growth

What did Mendel conclude about how traits are inherited? (11)

genetic code

Why did Thomas Hunt Morgan choose fruit flies in his study of genetics? (11)

reproduce quickly

What does the principle of dominance state? (11)

something is always at the top

What is incomplete dominance? (11)

case in which allele is not completely dominant

What did Griffith observe when he injected heat-killed disease causing bacteria and live harmless bacteria into mice? (14)

did nothing

Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code? (14)

mRNA

What are HOX genes? (14)

control differtions of cells and tissues

Describe transcriptions? (14)

process by which DNA copies messages to mRNA

In eukaryotic cells, where is the DNA located? (14)

in the nucleus

What are anticodons? (14)

a group of 3 bases RNA molecule, that are complementary to an mRNA codon

What happens during the process of translation? (14)

the cell uses information from mRNA to produce proteins

What do HOX genes determine? (14)

determine an animals basic body plan

What was Lamarck's theory of evolution? (15)

he proposed that be selective use of issues

When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some of the antelope are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin's concept of natural selection might be used to describe this situation? (15)

survival of the fittest

How did Darwin view the fossil record? (15)

a detailed chart of evolution

List three concepts of the modern theory of evolution. (15)

decent with modification, natural selection, competion among members of a population

What contribution was made by Charles Lyell? (15)

helped scientists recognize that the earth was billions of years old

What is an adaptation according to Darwin? (15)

an inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival

What contribution did Thomas Malthus make to Darwin's theory of evolution? (15)

darwin saw that was malthus was correctly identifing things

What did Darwin's theory of evolution suggest happened to species over time? (15)

evolved

Traditional classifications tend to take into account primarily what? (18)

similarities in body shape

How can the degree of relatedness be determined between a cow and yeast? (18)

by genes

Organisms in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom called ______________. (18)

protists

Why do biologists use a classification system to group organisms? (18)

to study the diversity of life

What is binomial nomenclature? (18)

the assigning of a two-part scientific name

Animals that are warm-blooded have body hair, and produce milk are grouped into what class? (18)

mammal

What do scientists consider when they perform cladistics analysis? (18)

they identify those characteristics of evolutionary innovation

What do all organisms have in common? (18)

common ancestor

List the four multicellular kingdoms. (18)

monera, protista, fungi, plantae

Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin? (18)

fungi

What is DNA? (19)

deoxiribo nucleic acid

List three ways humans can use bacteria to their benefit. (19)

they are used in the production of food and drinks, digesting petroleum, synthesize drugs and chemicals

What are decomposers? (19)

organism that breaks down and obtains dead organic matter

What does a typical virus contain? (19)

DNA or RNa surrounded by a protein coat

What are retroviruses? (19)

viruses that contain RNA as their genetic info

A prion is a virus like particle that contains only what? (19)

protein

What are multicellular protists and unicellular protists grouped together? (20)

they are two similar to be different kingdoms

List three products produced from algae. (20)

thickners, drugs, chemicals

In an amoeba, what do you call the small cavity within the cytoplasm that stores food? (20)

food vacuole

What is an algal bloom? (20)

a large mass of algae

What are the characteristics of a fungus? (21)

cell walls of chitin

How do most fungi reproduce? (21)

both sexually and asexually

How are the Stinkhorn's spores dispersed? (21)

flies carry them away

List the characteristics of an animal. (26)

multicellular, eukaryotic heterotroph, whose cells lack cell walls

What is a blastula? (26)

hollow ball of cells

List the two body forms of sponges. (26)

radial and bilateral

How do producing gemmules benefit a sponge? (26)

they can survive tough environments

How do cnidocytes help a cnidarian survive? (26)

they sting the prey

In jellyfishes, how does the medusa stage reproduce? (26)

both sexually and asexually

Name one trend in animal evolution. (26)

cell specialization, body cavity, bilateral symmetry

What is an animal called whose mouth is formed from the blastopore? (26)

protostome...

What are the specialized cells that use flagella to move a steady current of water through a sponge? (26)

choanocyte

In free-living flatworms, what organ pumps food into the digestive cavity? (27)

pharynx

In a Pseudocoelom, what does the mesoderm partially line? (27)

body cavity

List characteristics of the roundworms. (27)

unsegmented, with two opening

What causes the disease elephantiasis? (27)

filarial worms

In annelids, what structure eliminates nitrogen-containing wastes? (27)

nephridia

What is the defining characteristic of the annelids? (27)

segmented bodies, true coelom

Name the class of annelids that are external parasites. (27)

leeches

What do earthworm tunnels provide passage for? (27)

digestive tract

What are the functions of a chordates vertebral column? (30)

enclose and protect the spinal chord

What phylum do lancelets belong to? (30)

vertebrata

What type of circulatory system do fish have? (30)

closed circulatory system

What types of drugs slow down the activity of the central nervous system? (35)

depressants

What structure in the ear is filled with fluid and lined with tiny hair cells? (35)

cochlea

Name the region of the brain that recognizes hunger. (35)

hypothalomos

Name the process by which organ systems maintain a relative constant internal environment. (35)

homeostasis

What body system does alcohol immediately affect? (35)

central nervous system

Name the parts of the axial skeleton. (36)

skull, spine, rib cage

What is the function of cells called osteoclasts? (36)

they secrete old bone marrow

Name three parts of the integumentary system (36)

skin, hair, nails

Name three functions of bones in the human skeletal system. (36)

protect, gives structure, movement

What are the two layers of the skin? (36)

epidermis, dermis

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