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Biology 101 Chapter 1

Definition of Taxonomy

This is the science of naming things.

Mnemonic for the Level of Taxonomy

King Philip called out fifty good soldiers.

Listed from least specific to most specific

The levels of taxonomy

Levels of Taxonomy

Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Primate
Family Hominidae
Genus Homo
Species Sapiens

3 Domains of LIfe

Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid
Recipe book for organisms

Metabolism

The sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in all organisms.
Requires energy in the form of ATP.

2 types of reactions

anabolism: building up
catabolism: breaking down

Homeostasis

maintaining a constant internal environment that is within a physiological rant

Autotrophs

They are producers, which means they make their own food.

Heterotrophs

They are consumers, which means that they need outside sources for their means of consumption.

Decomposers

They are heterotrophs. They eat food from outside sources, but they can break down organisms for food and quickly return the nutrients back to the environment.

Archaebacteria

Bacteria that are prokaryotic, extremely small, and unicellular. They also live in extreme habitats.

Eubacteria

Bacteria that is normal and cyanobacteria. They are also unicellular, prokaryotic, and are considered to be producers and decomposers. They make food by means of photosynthesis.

Protista

Amoeba, paramecium, and euglena are considered this. They are unicellular, eukaryotic, and considered to be producers and consumers.

Euglena

Produces food by means of photosynthesis. They also have a primitive eye that can only detect the difference between light and dark.

Fungi

Most of these are multicellular, eukaryotic, decomposers, and possibly represent the largest organisms on Earth.

Yeast

The only fungi that is considered to be unicellular.

Plantae

Trees, grass, and corn is considered to be this. They are multicellular, eukaryotic, and producers.

Animalia

Insects, sea sponges, and worms are considered this. They are multicellular, consumers, and eukaryotic.

The Scientific Method

1. Observations
2. Hypothesis
3. Experimental Phase
4. Gather data
5. Conclusion
6. Publish

Experimental Phase

Process of testing the hypothesis by having a controlled group and an experimental group.
The test that is done to prove or disprove the set hypothesis must be repeatable.

Hypothesis

This is an "educated guess" that must be testable and can be done numerous times.

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