Nutrition

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Diet and Health

What are cytokines?

Specialized proteins that activate responses to infection.

The most important organs of the immune system include all of the following except:

muscle

The process by which immune cells engulf and then destroy bacteria is known as?

phagocytosis

The immune system treats foreign substances such as bacteria and toxins as?

antigens

Functions of the Tcells include all of the following except:

production of antibodies

HIV is known to be transmitted by direct contact with contaminated body fluids from all of the following sources except?

Saliva

Which of the following leading causes of death in the United States does not bear a relationship to diet?

Pneumonia and influenza

Markers for inflammation as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease include high levels of all of the following except:

ephedra

A significant reduction in blood flow to the brain is termed

a stroke

Which of the following describes a known association with coronary heart disease(CHD)?

In men, CHD begins 10-15 years earlier than women

All of the following are features of low-density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease except

excess LDL cholesterol in the blood is removed by high-density lipoproteins

A person who produces a normal amount of insulin but whose cells show suboptimal response is said to be

insulin resistant

Stefan was recently diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. He is very scared about his new diagnosis because no one in his family has ever had it and he hasn't ever heard of it. His primary care physician refers him to your office for some counseling on his modifiable rish factors. Which are the following topics you will most likely discuss with Stefan?

How to improve his atherogenic diet

What should be the next course of action for a person who was unsuccessful in lowering LDL or blood pressure by lifestyle changes?

prescribe medications

Amoung the following, which should be the first action take to lower blood cholesterol?

Achieve and maintain appropriate body weight

What is the best predictor for risk of a stroke?

Blood pressure

Approximately what percent of people with high blood pressure are sensitive to salt?

50%

Which of the following is a characteristic of factors associated with hypertension?

African Americans develop high blood pressure earlier in life and their average blood pressure is higher than whites

The DASH diet was developed to lower the rish for?

hypertension

Amoun the following lifestyle changes, which has the least favorable effect on reducing blood pressure?

Limiting daily alcohol intake to 1-2 drinks

Your aunt Crystal asks you to recommend a diet that will help lower her blood pressure. She is willing to try just about anything. Which of the following choices would be most effective in lowering Crystal's blood pressure?

Include 3 servings of skim milk and 10 servings of fruits and vegetables a day plus restricting sodium to 2 grams a day.

People who use diuretics are most at rick of developing imbalances of?

Potassium

Diuretics act to lower blood pressure by

increasing fluid loss

Which of the following is a characteristic of drug therapy for hypertension?

Antihypertensive drugs work by lowering blood volume

A person who hasn't consumed anything except water for the past 8 hours has a blood glucose concentration of 101 mg/dl. This person would be classified as?

prediabetic

What is believed to be the primary cause of type 1 diabetes?

Defect of the immune system

Which of the following conditions is characterized by insulin resistance of fat cells?

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

A complication of diabetes is blurry vision, which results from swelling of the lenses of the eye caused by conversion of excess glucose to?

sugar alcohols

Brooke is a 42 year old obese person who seems to be always hungry and thirsty. She is constantly drinking sodas and likes to end her dinner every night with a piece of chocolate cake and ice cream. After going to the doctor, Brooke is diagnosed with diabetes. Which of the following types of diabetes does Brooke most likely have?

Type 2 diabetes

The excessive thirst common in diabetes is known as

polydipsia

What is the primary reason for increased urine output in uncontrolled diabetes?

High levels of blood glucose spill into the urine, drawing water with it by osmosis

Which of the following is a leading cause of both blindness and kidney failure?

Diabetes

Gangrene is a common complication primarily in people with?

Diabetes

The role of diet for people with diabetes includes all of the following except?

The glycemic effect of foods should be a primary consideration

The higher risk for breast cancer in obese women after menopause is thought to result mainly from chronic exposure to?

estrogen

Which of the following is not known to correlate strongly with risk for cancer of the head and neck?

Food additives and pesticides

Which of the following cooking techniques for meats results in lease formation of carcinogens?

Marinating before cooking

Which of the following foods is known to contain abundant amounts of phytonutrients that protect against cancers of the espohagus and endometrium?

Cruciferous vegetables

Which of the following is not amoung the recommendations issued by health professionals to reduce cancer risks?

Increase intake of foods high in iron

Which of the following practices is not believed to be protective for all of the following: heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer?

Consuming fat within the range of 20-35% of total energy

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