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Unit #3

neurons and neuroglia

The two types of cells of the nervous system are

All listed

Sensory receptors monitor light, monitor sound, are part of the PNS, or detect changes in and outside the body

Myelin

Comprises much of the cell membrane of Schwann cells

All listed

Which of the following are a type of neruoglia? Astrocyte, Oligodendrocyte, Ependymal cell or Schwann cell

Axons of the CNS lack Schwann cells

A reason that the CNS and PNS differ in their ability to regenerate after injury is that

Ganglia

Clusters of neuron cell bodies are called

Convergence

Axons from neurons in different parts of the nervous system contacting the same neuron

Axons

Synptic knobs are at the ends of?

Calcium ions

When an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vesicles are released in response to the presence of?

Threshold

A stimulus great enough to change the membrane potential and propagate an action potential is said to have reached?

Potassium

Which of the following ions cross cell membranes most readily? Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Carbonate, or Magnesium

2,1,3,4

What is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential? 1.the membrane depolarizes. 2. Sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward. 3. The membrane repolarizes. 4. Potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward.

pia, arachnoid, and dura matter

The meninges consist of

brainstem

The fourth ventricle is in the

All listed

Cerebrospinal fluid
informs the autonomic centers in the brainstem and hypothalamus about the internal environment.
protects the brain
protects the spinal cord
provides a pathway for waste to enter the blood

crossed extensor reflex

When the flexor muscles of one arm contract in a withdrawal reflex, the extensor muscles of the other arm contract. This phenomenon is called?

Up the spinal cord to the thalamus

the spinothalamic tract conducts impulses?

Rubrospinal

Which of the following are descending tracts in the spinal cord?

All listed

The spinal cord has 31 segments, a cervical and lumbar enlargement, a core of gray matter surrounded by white matter, two deep longitudinal grooves

Cerebellum

the part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscular movements is the

Motor control of the muscles assoicated with speech is lost

If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca's area is damaged

Anterior pituitary gland

Which of the following is not part of the diencephalon? Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Anterior pituitary gland, or posterior pituitary gland

unconsciousness or coma

If the reticular formation is injured, the person might exhibit signs of

dermatome

The area of skin supplied by sensory nerve fibers from a particular dorsal root is called a

primarily in the head

Special senses arise from receptors located

monitors oxygen levels in the blood

A type of receptor that does not trigger a sensation

sensory adaptation

The ability to ignore your socks around your ankles demonstrates

chemoreceptors

Stimulated by changes in concentration of chemical substances

pain receptors

stimulated by damage to tissue

thermoreceptors

stimulated by temperature changes

baroreceptors

stimulated by blood pressure changes

adapting very little, if at all

Pain receptors differ from other somatic recepters by

the Organ of Corti

The hearing receptors are most closely assiciated with the

Retina

Which of the following is part of the inner tunic of the eye

umami

The taste receptor that amino acid such as glutamate activate is

images in the eyes are different

Stereoscopic vision results when the

the direction of motion

Movement of hair cells in the semicircular canals signals

accumulation of aqueous humor

Glaucoma is usually caused by

astigmatism

The condition in which some parts of an image are in focus on the retina and other parts are

paracrine

Secretions that affect only nearby cells are termed

All listed

Steroid hormones
Are soluble in water
combine with protein receptor molecules
cause messenger RNA synthesis
consist of complex organic rings

activation of adenylate cyclase

Nonsteroid hormones cause ______________ in their targets

hypothalamus

Hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes are synthesized in the

All

Growth hormone
enhances the movement of amino acids
increases the rate of protein synthesis
increases the rate of fat metabolism
enlarges cells

thyroid gland

The __________ secretes triiodothyronine.

enhances the rate at which proteins are synthesized

Thyroxine

concentration of blood calcium

The secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled primarily by the

calcitonin

The hormone that decreases calcium in the blood is called

conserve sodium and excrete potassium

Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions by causing kidneys to

Cortisol

What stimulates the production of glucose from noncarbohydrates?

a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose

Secretion of insulin causes

False

Neuroglia are specialized to react to environmental change, and neurons support neuroglia

True

The somatic nervous system controls voluntary actions and the autonomic nervous system oversees involuntary action

False

Nodes of Ranview lie between neuron

False

Converging nerve fibers amplify nerve impulses

True

The dura matter is the outermost layer of the meninges

False

The arbor vitae is in the cerebrum

True

the choroid plexuses project into the ventricles

True

The hypoglossal cranial nerve controls muscles that move the tongue

False

The abducens nerve controls muscles that function in swallowing

False

Receptors that are stimulated by changes in chemical concentrations are called thermoreceptors

True

Endorphins are neuropeptides that have morphine-like actions

False

The utricle and saccule contain the sensory receptors associated with the sense of dynamic equilibrium

False

An autocrine secretion affects cells far away

False

The nervous system releases hormones at synapses and the endocrine system releases neurotranssmitters into the bloodstream

True

Steroid hormones diffuse through cell membranes, then bind with receptors, whereas nonsteroid hormones bind receptors on the target cell membrane

False

Oxytocin stimulates the kidneys to conserve water

False

The auditory ossicles are in the inner ear

True

When all three sets of cones are stimulated, a person senses white light.

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