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Anwar Sadat

president of Egypt during camp david accords

Anwar Sadat

planned Yom Kippur War

Anwar Sadat

wanted to make peace with Israel so signed Camp David Accords in 1979

Anwar Sadat

assassinated by Muslim extremists

Golda Meir

Israeli prime minister during the Yom Kippur war an launched a counterattack which allowed Israel to regain most of the lost territory

Golda Meir

Israeli Prime minister during Six Day War

Yasir Arafat

leader of the PLO

Yasir Arafat

organized civil disobedience towards Israel

Yasir Arafat

signed Oslo Peace Accords with Israel in 1993

1979

year the Camp David accords were signed

1993

year the Oslo Peace Accords were signed

Palestinian Liberation Organization

PLO

PLO

organization that want a Palestinian homeland/state

PLO

launched numerous attacks against Israel

PLO

led by Yasir Arafat

Camp David Accords

Jimmy Carter invited Egypt and Israel to presidential retreat to have peace talks

Camp David Accords

signed by Sadat and Begin (Egypt and Israel) at Camp David in the USA

Camp David Accords

Israel agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula in this agreement

Camp David Accords

Egypt recognized Israel as a legitimate nation in this agreement

Camp David Accords

ended 30 years of hostility

intifada

Palestinian campaign of civil disobedience; included boycotts, demonstrations, and armed attacks

Oslo Peace Accords

Declaration of Principles

Oslo Peace Accords

signed by Rabin (Israel) and Arafat (PLO) in capital of Norway (Oslo)

Oslo Peace Accords

Israel gave Palestinians self-rule in Gaza Strip and West Bank

Oslo Peace Accords

Israelis disliked giving up land so a Jewish extremist killed Rabin

1917

year the Balfour Declaration was created

Balfour Declaration

a letter to Zionists about Britain's idea to give a homeland to the Jewish people while protecting rights of non jewish communities

Zionists

a group of people you favored a Jewish Homeland in Palestine so that they could be back in the land of their ancestors

1948

independent Israel is created in this year

1956

Arab israeli war year that Israel won

1967

Six Day War year which Israel also won

1973

Yom kippur war year which Israel took back and won

Suez Canal

manmade canal going through Egypt;

Suez Canal

connects Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea

Suez Canal

faster way to transport goods

Suez Canal

caused Suez Crisis because Egypt wanted control of it, but Britain wouldn't give in

Hosni Mubarak

president of Egypt after Anwar Sadat was assassinated

Hosni Mubarak

harsh dictator of Egypt stepped down in February 2011 after 30 years

Y. Rabin

leader of Israel who signed Oslo Peace Accords with PLO

Y. Rabin

assassinated by Jewish extremist who disliked his want for peace

Benjamin Netanyahu

prime minister of Israel after Rabin

Benjamin Netanyahu

disliked Oslo Accords, but made efforts to keep agreement

Ehud Barak

prime minister of Israel after Netanyahu

Ehud Barak

supported Oslo Accords more than Netanyahu did

Ehud Barak

went to Camp David w/ Arafat in 2000, but peace plans stalled

Ariel Sharon

Israeli political leader who went to Temple Mount in Jerusalem (Jewish holy place), which started 2nd intifada against Israelis

Ariel Sharon

prime minister of Israel after Barak

Mahmoud Abbas

high-ranking PLO official and first Palestinian prime minister and also main negotiator for Palestinian side

Mahmoud Abbas

high-ranking PLO official->first Palestinian prime minister->main negotiator for Palestinian side

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia

Transcaucasian Republics

Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan

Central Asian Republics

white gold

cotton grown in Central Asia; cash crop; only crop they grew

oil

cause of Hussein's invasion of Kuwait; found mostly in Kuwait

Afghanistan

Soviet's fought for control here because they wanted access to the Indian Ocean and wanted to spread communism

Soviets

never succeeded in controlling Afghanistan; in country for 10 years (1979-1989)

mujahideen

Islamic "holy warriors" against Soviet control in Afghanistan

Taliban

political party in Afghanistan that ruled for 5 years until US drove them from power

Taliban

conservative-no rights for women, bad treatment

Osama bin Laden

leader of the Al-Qaeda, responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on nations (most famous=9/11)

Osama bin Laden

began as soldier for mujahideen

Osama bin Laden

killed by US Navy SEALs in May 2011

Al-Qaeda

terrorist group responsible for many attacks on the US and other nations

Al-Qaeda

supported by the Taliban

Hamid Karzai

ruler the Afghanis chose after the defeat of Taliban

9/11

planned by Osama bin Laden and carried out by Al-Qaeda

9/11

4 planes-2 smashed into the Twin Towers, 1 smashed into the Pentagon, 1 was supposed to hit the White House, but passengers on the plane received this information and overtook the pilot, crashed into a field and all died for their country

9/11

most successful terrorist attack on the US

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NATO

NATO

for collective security; between US, England, France, Canada, and other Western European countries

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

SEATO

SEATO

Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand; opposed communism; purpose=to stop spread of communism in Southeast Asia

United Nations

worked towards world peace; had peacekeeping forces-soldiers from different nations; 40,000 soldiers in 13 peacekeeping forces around the world

Weapons of Mass Destruction

nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons

proliferation

spread (of weapons to other nations)

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty

SALT

SALT

made to keep the number of troops and arms at a minimum in order to keep peace

Saddam Hussein

president of Iraq for 26 years

Saddam Hussein

radical, harsh ruler; killed thousands of people, even his own;

Saddam Hussein

US thought he was making WMD's, we sent inspectors who were then not allowed to come back in a 2nd time, so we sent troops to raid then he ran away in hiding and US found him in a cave in 2009 so we gave him to the replacement Iraqi gov't, who then found him guilty after trial, so they executed him

1991

year of the Persian Gulf War

Persian Gulf War

Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait to take control of the country so he could get the oil and money from it and the US sent counterattack groups and 6 months later, Hussein was pushed out-on his way out, he ordered his troops to set fire to oil mines

Arms trade

bustling and busy trade of weapons

Arms trade

ensures that in most conflicts around the world, each side had more than enough weapons in their possession

Arms trade

US, W. Europe, SU gave conventional arms to developing countries during this event

conventional arms

non-nuclear weapons (tanks, planes, rifles)

conventional arms

supplied by US, Western Europe, and SU during Cold War

conventional arms

sold mostly to developing nations

Non-Proliferation Treaty

NPT

NPT

made to prevent spread of nuclear weapons to other nations

NPT

passed by UN in 1968, enforced from 1970-1995 (25 years) and is renewed forever

Bioweapons

biological weapons

Bioweapons

considered the most deadly weapon

Bioweapons

microorganisms, bacteria, viruses-invade the body, multiply inside it, and destroy it

Bioweapons

can kill huge #s of people if used properly

Bioweapons

effects of weapon aren't limited to 1 place or small target

Tony Blair

prime minister of Great Britain who accused the Iraqis of deception and evasion and said that inspections would never work against them when the US was searching for WMD's in Iraq

Operation Iraqi Freedom

event in 2003 in Iraq

Operation Iraqi Freedom

Bush demanded that Hussein and aides leave Iraq or face military strike and he refused; invasion of Iraq to remove Hussein

Operation Iraqi Freedom

coalition forces won, but people still needed help in rebuilding their nation and stayed to help keep order in Iraq

coalition

troops made up of soldiers from different nations (i.e. Britain and US)

coalition

defeated regime of Hussein in Iraq->won war in Iraq

Israel

created because Jews needed a homeland after the Holocaust

Israel

UN wanted to partition Palestine into 2 separate Palestinian and Jewish states.... the cause of making this country

invasion

what happened to Israel the day after it became a country

Azerbaijan

country whos economy is based off of income from the oil industry

United States and Soviet Union

2 countries that Afghanistan had wars with

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