This occurs when the author uses a term in two different ways in the same argument. More or less the author uses one word in two different ways in which the meaning changes. Aka: Equivocate
Uncertian Use of a Term or Concept
When a persons character, and not the argument presented is attacked. Ex: "We should not pass this law because Sen Boxer is a lesbian"
When the author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. The premis and conclusion will be identical in meaning. Ex: "This essay is the best because it is better then all the others"
The flaw would either be a Mistaken Reversal, or Mistaken Negation. Confusing a Nessesary condition with a Sufficiant condition or vice versa.
Errors of Conditional Reasoning
1) Assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence of events. 2) Assumes that there is a causal relationship when only a temporal relationship exists. 3) Failure to consider an alternate cause of the effect, or an alternate cause for both the cause and effect. 4) Failure to consider that the events might be reversed.
Mistaken Cause and Effect
When author attempts to attack opponent's position by ignoring the actual statements made by the opposing speaker and instead distorts and refashions the argument, making it weaker and easier to knock down.
Either failing to provide information to support the conclusion or providing irrelivant information to support conclusion.
General Lack of Relevant Evidence for the Conclusion
When author makes conflicting statements. Ex: "Everyone should join our country club. After all it's an exclusive group that links many influential members of the community"
1) Appeal to authority. 2) Appeal to popular opinion/numbers. 3)Appeal to emotion.
1)Biased sample. 2)Improperly constructed questions. 3) Respondents to the survey give innaccurate responses.
This flaw takes a small number of instances and treats those instances as if they support a broad, sweeping conclusion.Ex: "Two of my friends were shortchanged at that store. Therefore, everyone gets short changed at that store."
Errors involve judgments made about groups and parts of a group.
Errors of Composition and Division
When author attributes a characteristic of part of the group to the group as a whole or to each member of the group.
When author attributes a characteristic of the whole (or each member of the whole) to part of the group.
Occurs when the author uses an analogy that is too dissimilar to the original situation to be applicable.
Assumes that there are only two courses of action available when in reality there may be others.
1) Lack of Evidence is taken to mean that the position taken is false. 2) Lack of Evidence against the position is taken to mean the position is true. 3) Some evidence against the position is taken to proove the position is false. 4) Some evidence that supports the position is taken to mean that the position is true.
Errors in the use of Evidence
This flaw assumes that conditions will remain constant over time, and that what is the case in the past will be the case in the future.
Time Shift Errors
Errors can be made when an author improperly equates a percentage with a definite quantity, or vice versa.
Numbers and Percentage Errors