The heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914. The murder destroyed the balance of European stability, and it led to war.
A feeling of intense loyalty to one's country or group. This caused much of the tension in Europe, because some encouraged new nations to unify, whereas some ethnic groups wanted independent nations of their own.
The actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over smaller or weaker nations. This led to conflict.
The buildup of military strength of one nation. Germany, France, and Russia all developed huge armies.
The defense agreements among nations.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Great Britain, France, and Russia
*Entente - an understanding between nations.
Balance of power
A system that prevents any one country from dominating others. This made Europe like a powder keg. It would take "only a spark to set the whole thing off."
Battle of the Marne
September 5-12, 1914, The British and the French saved Paris from Germany and boosted French morale. It made it clear that neither side was capable of winning easily.
A form of fighting in which opposing armies faced each other across an elaborate network of deep trenches, which provided protection from bullets and artillery shells.
Battle of Verdun
1916; German offensive from February to December. The Germans eventually lost to the French. Over 750,000 soldiers died in the end.
Battle of the Somme
July 1916; the British and French launched this offensive in northern France. Casualties were high, and they only gained 7 miles.
Baron von Richthofen, a famous German pilot who waged duels in the sky using only machine guns.
A blimp; used by the Germans to bomb Allied cities.
Submarines (Unterseeboot) used by Germans as a naval weapon to prevent supplies - food, ammunition, etc - from reaching Great Britain and to attack ships at sea.
Information used to influence opinion. Americans used this by calling Germans "Huns" and pictured them as savage barbarians.
May 7, 1915; a German U-boat torpedoed this British passenger liner of the coast of Ireland. "...It was cold-blooded murder." This ship sank in about 15 minutes, and more than 1,000 people died.
A secret telegram intercepted by the British government from the German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann that was supposed to be sent to Mexico with an offer to the Mexican government to reconquer its lost territory in the U.S. in return for a secret alliance.
Rule by one person with unlimited power. Wilson claimed that the Allies were fighting a war of democracy against _______.
Selective Service Act
May 18, 1917; this act established a military draft. Men aged 21-30 (later on from 18-45) were registered by the millions.
A team; these teams of warships escorted merchant ships across the Atlantic to protect them from U-boats. In one year it reduced Allied shipping losses from 900,000 to 300,000 tons a month.
A group of communists in Russia who overthrew the democratic government. Led by Vladimir Lenin, this group wanted to end Russia's participation in the war to focus their energy and resources to establish a new Communist state.
The leader of the Bolsheviks.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
March 1918; a treaty between Russia and Germany that surrendered Poland, the Ukraine, etc. to Germany in return for a peaceful withdrawal out of the war.
John J. Pershing
A general who led the American Expeditionary Force (troops in Europe) and preferred to keep the AEF a separate force.
American Expeditionary Force
The name of the 2 million troops under John Pershing in Europe. It helped turn back a German offensive at Château-Thierry on the Marne River and then stop it.
An agreement to end the fighting. Germany asked for one, and Wilson consented under certain conditions.
1. Germany must accept his plan for peace and promise not to renew hostilities.
2. All German troops must leave Belgium and France.
3. Wilson would deal only with civilian leaders.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
The German emperor who was forced to give up his throne. Germany then became a republic, and the new leaders agreed to Wilson's terms for the armistice.
The gathering of resources and the preparation for war.
National War Labor Board
April 1918; this board pressured businesses to grant some of the workers' pressing demands to ensure production of vital war materials.
War bonds sold to Americans; 2/3 of the war budget.
He helped organize food for war refugees in Europe. Appointed by Wilson to head the Food Administration.
This agency launched a campaign to encourage American farmers to produce more and to persuade the public to eat less; "Wheatless Mondays," "Meatless Tuesdays," etc. This agency also encouraged rationing (limitation of use).
War Industries Board
This government agency supervised the nation's industrial production. It converted factories to the production of war-related goods and set prices for key consumer products.
Committee of Public Information
A committee that created propaganda posters, regulated newspaper articles, distributed millions of pro-war pamphlets, and printed books to persuade Americans that the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom.
1914-1920; 300,000 to 500,000 African Americans left their homes in the rural South to seek jobs and settle in the Northern cities. This tremendous population movement was known as the ______ ___________.
East St. Louis (Illinois riots)
July 1917; A city where one of the worst race riots took place. A white mob attacked an African American neighborhood, burned houses, and fired at escaping residents. About 40 A-A died, and thousands lost their homes.
People who believe industries should be publicly owned. They opposed the war because they thought it would only help rich business owners and hurt working people.
People opposed to the use of violence. They also opposed the war, along with the socialists.
1917; this act gave the government a new weapon to combat dissent to the war. The law provided stiff penalties for _________, or spying, as well as for aiding the enemy or interfering with army recruiting.
1918; this act, along with the Sedition Act, made it a crime to say, print, or write almost anything perceived as negative about the government. Such acts would be considered __________, or secret action to damage the war effort.
1918; this act, along with the Sabotage Act, made it a crime to say, print, or write almost anything perceived as negative about the government. Socialists, pacifists, labor activists, and immigrants were convicted under these laws.
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan in a proposal after WWI. Several of these points concerned the adjustment of boundaries in Europe and the creation of new nations. These points reflected Wilson's belief in "national self-determination," the right of the people to decide how they should be governed.
League of Nations
Wilson's final point concerned the creation of a ________ __ ______. This group of nations would help preserve peace and prevent future wars by pledging to respect and protect one another's territory and political independence.
President Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy - the major figures in the negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference.
Treaty of Versailles
Under this treaty, Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war and to pay billions of dollars in reparations to the Allies. Germany also had to disarm completely and give up all its overseas colonies and some territory in Europe. The treaty also carved up the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires. In the end, this treaty, along with the League of Nations, was rejected in the Senate.