Microbiology-Lecture 4

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Chapter 9,10,11

Genetics

Inheritance of biological characteristics

Genome

Total genetics material of a single cell

Gene

Part of chromosomes that create a single enzyme/protein

Codon

Codes for One single amino acid--> triplet code(3 nucleic acid)- an orchestrator that tell them to all line up

Exon

Is the meaningful part of a strand(code)

Intron

A string in the chromosomes-->inter space-no contribution

Splicer enzymes

Form codes--> remove intron from RNA-->create code or message

Genotype

Distinctive genetic makeup of an organism

Phenotype

How the organism looks

E Coli

One Chromosome -4288 genes--> we have 5 time that many genes

AT, CG- What is that?

The nucleic acid they make DNA

Nucleic acids

Purines and pyromidines

How DNA works during transcription

In a eukaryote, DNA never leaves the nucleus, so its information must be copied. This copying process is called transcription and the copy is mRNA. Transcription takes place in the cytoplasm (prokaryote) or in the nucleus (eukaryote).

DNA(RNA) Polymerase

The transcription is performed by an enzyme called RNA polymerase

Transcription

RNA copy

Translation

Makes protein

mRNA

Messanger RNA-caring template message

tRNA

Transfer RNA-amino acid when needed

rRNA

Ribosome RNA-places amino acid in sequence

Ribosomes

rRNA

Enzymes

Organic catalysts-make things happen

Primer RNA

Makes process enzyme-on switch begins process

Operons

The on-off switch positive feedback-if lactose is present, it turns on the lactase gene--> so you can metabolize lactose

Mutations

Most are fixed in the body-drop of genetic code 10 to the 10th power body fixes

Causes

Radiation-ultra violet sun rays- or I131-radiation
Cigarettes
Chemical Plants

Mutation Repair

Cutting and pasting-fixing mutations to not get cancer

Xeroderma pigmentosa

Genetic disorder where people can not repair mutations from the sun

What is the purpose of an Ames Test?

Salmonella bug developed to not fix mutations
Ex. Japan-What is rate of mutation->take DNA-> measure mutagens of environment

Recombinant DNA

Mixing of DNA-not sexual, but an exchange of body fluids

Transformation

Picks up loose DNA-get into cell

Transduction

Contamination of DNA carried in by virus(bacteriophage)

Transposing

"Jumping genes"-changing order of DNA

Conjugation

Sex in a group

DNA Analysis

Paternity,indentification, where you there?(Fingerprints or saliva)-->detective of pherensic

Adult Stem

Cell de-pression

Superweeds

Yesterdays potatoes gone crazy

Gene probes

Specific nucleotide sequence-->tag with florescent tag

What is gene probe used for?

Quicker-->quick results can use antibiotics to treat actual problem

Recombinant DNA

Take segment for missing gene put it into a cell of infant via a phage or take missing gene sequence w/friendly bacteria

Pharming

engineer them to produce what we want them to produce.

Pharming examples

Medications
Vaccines-passive or active
Blood clotting factors
Hormones-insulin

Genetically altered organisms

Antibiotics
Train bacteria to eat cancer cells

Gene Silencing

Stopping expression of bad gene that certain people are susceptible
Ex. Alzheimer--> operon suppression

Genomanalysis

Test of all of a person's DNA

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