Chinese Dynasties

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Name the steps of the Dynastic Cycle

Old DYnasty-> loss of mandate of heaven-> problems-> New dynasty claims mandate-> new dynasty becomes old...^

Shang

(1700 - 1027 BCE)
-First recorded Dynasty (Xia - no written records)
-Ruled by aristocracy
-First Chinese cities, center of court life
-Developed writing, worked with bronze, created silk
-Honored ancestors, used oracle bones
-Shang tyrant emperor overthrown

What was the dynasty without written record

Xia

Zhou

(1027 - 250 BCE)
-Longest lasting Chinese Dynasty
-Beginning of Mandate of Heaven

In the beginning of the Zhou what was the form of government and what was it in the end

-Early: Feudal system, lords had total authority
-Later: City-states

What were achievements of the Zhou

-Built roads, expanded trade, made agricultural advancements

What were the two things introduced in Zhou

Taoism and Confucianism

Why did the Zhou decline?

inefficient rulers can't control fighting between city-states

what is another name for the period during which the Zhou declined

Period of Warring States

WHat dynasty comes after the Zhou

Qin

how many emperors ruled during the Qin

1

Who was emperor during the Qin and describe him

Qin Shihuangdi

Brutal ruler - executed dissenters, burned books
Many enemies, dynasty falls after his death

what did they adopted instead of Taoism and Confucianism

legalism

what were the years of the Qin

(221 - 207 BCE)

describe their govt. in the Qin

Developed highly centralized gov't with bureaucratic administration

name the two main achievements of the Qin

Standardized- currency, language, measurements, laws
Great wall- first part

why does the Qin fall

emperor Qin dies

Who replaces the Qin

Han (202 BCE - 221 CE)

legalism replaced by...

confucianism

name all the achievements of Han

-Introduced civil service examination (scholar bureaucrats)
-Silk Roads developed, opens trade
-calendar
-medical treatments (acupuncture)
- agricultural advancements (fertilizers)
-increased population
-paper invented

what was their religion

buddhism

Decline of the Han Dynasty?

Nomadic raiders attacked
Corruption spread in government
Weak leaders
Collapse of bureaucracy
Warlords control china - no centralized government
Non-Chinese nomads control much of China
Buddhism becomes popular - Confucianism falters

Sui (581 - 618 CE) acievements

-Completed Grand Canal

Sui end

-High taxes, forced labor
-Military failures (couldn't conquer Korea)
-Assassination ends dynasty

Who was the ruler and what was so special about them in the Tang (618 - 907 CE)

Wu Zetian - Only Empress in Chinese history

Why did the Tang decline

Decline
Weak emperors, nomadic incursions, economic difficulties
Warlords take control

What dynasties are part of the golden age

Song, Tang and

Song Song (969 - 1279 CE) what type of govt.

centralized bureaucracy- neo-confucianism

Song achievements

Magnetic compass, growing sea power
Mercantile class grows, increased trade

Song decline

Weak military

Yuan (1279 - 1368 CE) ruler

Mongol: Khubilai Khan conquers China

achievements of the Yuan

Economic stability and prosperity
China more open to trade and travel (Marco Polo)

changes in the Yuan

Ignored Chinese traditions, replaced bureaucrats with non-Chinese

Decline of the Yuan

Unsuccessful attacks on Japan, corruption weakens dynasty
Peasant rebellion ends Yuan

Ming (1368 - 1644 CE) emperor

Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (a peasant) comes to power

WHat did Zhu Yuanzhang try to do?

erase all signs of Mongols

what was something popularly done in the Ming

Eunuchs play growing role

what were achievements

Rebuilt and extended Great Wall
Collapsed after famines and riots
Forbidden City
Increased sea exploration but then there was as sudden stop

Decline of the Ming

Collapsed after famines and riots
Isolationism cut them off from advancement

Qing 1644 - 1911 CE ruled by

Manchus (from Manchuria) move south
Take Korea, Japan, then China
While in power expand into Burma, Thailand, Laos, Nepal, Vietnam, and Korea.

Qing achievement

"Son of Heaven" concept emphasized

Qing Decline

Would be final Chinese Dynasty
Eventually would be weakened by European / American interventions
The carving of China into Sphere's of Influence leads to the need for revolutionary actions
Puyi will be the last emperor, technically losing his power at age six

which dynasty began the mandate if heaven

Zhou

which dynasty began the civil service exam

Han

which dynasty began the silk roads

Han

Name them all in order

Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic, Mao Zedong

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