Psyc Final

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psychoanalytic theory

explains personality focusing on early childhood, and unconscious motives

conscious

aware of at a particular point and time

preconscious

just beneath surface of awareness. easily retrieved

unconscious

difficult to retrieve. well below surface.

ego

decision making compononent.
reality principle

reality principle

seeks to delay gratifications of the ids urges until appropriate times

id

raw biological sources
driven by the pleasure principle

pleasure principle

demands immediate gratification of its urges

superego

moral component of personality
driven by moral imperatives

defense mechanism

unconscious reactions that protect a person from guilt

rationalization

creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behaviors
"everyone does it"

reaction formation

acting opposite of ones true feelings
-making fun of a gay person to hide that you're gay

projection

attributing ones owns thoughts or feelings to another person.
-if you're sexually attracted to someone else, you might claim that the other person is sexually attracted to you

displacement

diverting feelings of anger from an original source to another target.
-if your boss makes you mad, you come home and kick the dog and yell at your wife

regression

aversion to immature patterns of behavior.
-when anxious about self worth, some adults childishly brag and boast

repression

keeping depressing thoughts imprisoned in the unconscious
-people tend to repress conflicts or memories

denial

when people consciously refuse to face up to unpleasant realities
-refuse that your wife is cheating on you

phsycosexual development

basic foundations of an individuals personality is determined by age 5

oral stage

0-1
mouth
feeding experiences crucial to subsequent development

anal stage

2-3
anus
toilet training crucial to subsequent development

phallic stage

4-5
genitals
oedipal complex

oedipal complex

childrens feeling of want for opposite sex parent and hostility towards same sex parent

latency stage

6-12
no body part of focus
sexuality suppressed
social skills developed

genital stage

puberty-onward
genitals
sexual energy channeled towards opposite sex rather than yourself

behaviorism

psychology should only study behavior that can be experimented

bf skinner

behaviorist
dumb to look at what goes on inside mind
should look at observable behavior, how outside worlds shapes personality

personality

collection of response tendencies

operant conditioning

form of learning in which voluntary responses learn to be controlled by their consequences

negative reinforcement

removal of unpleasant stimulus

positive reinforcement

response strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus

extinction

gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency

punishment

response weakens or suppresses the tendency to make that response

bandura

observational learning

roger

humanism
person centered theory
client centered theory

humanism

emphasizes unique qualities of humans. (freedom, rational nature, potential for growth)

phenomenological approach

subjective view is more important than reality

maslow

hierarchy of needs
"growth needs"-need for self actualization

biological theories

physique to personality
shelden

endomorphy

persons body being fat round soft
sociable, relaxed, even tempered, affectionate

mesomorphy

strong muscular hard body type
energetic, competitive, aggressive, bold

ectomorphy

skinny frail body type
inhibited, apprehensive, intellectual, self conscious

eysenck

extraversion

extraversion

personality trait characterized by interest in the external world of people and things
sociability

anxiety disorders

marked by apprehension and anxiety

generalized anxiety disorder

high anxiety not tied to a specific threat

phobic disorder

persistent rational fear of something that presents no realistic fear

panic disorder

recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety.
leads to agoraphobia

agoraphobia

fear of being in public places

obsessive compulsive disorder

uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted obsessions

consistency

to behave in a cheerful, hopeful, enthusiastic way.
looking at bright side of things

distinctiveness

why everyone reacts differently to certain situations

neuroticism

negative
worried, insecure, self pitying

extraversion

positive
sociable, fun loving, affectionate

openness to experience

imaginative
preference for variety
independent

agreeableness

softhearted, trusting, helpful

conscientiousness

constraint
well organized, careful, self disciplined

five factor model

neuroticism
extraversion
openness to experience
agreeableness
conscienctiousness

unipolar mood disorder

aka depressive disorders
experience emotional extremes at one end of the mood contiuum.
troubled by episodes of depression

bipolar mood disorders

experience emotional extremes at both ends of the mood contiuum.
depression and mania

manic

opposite of depressive

attributions

inferences people draw about the causes of events and behavior

learned helplessness model

seligman
internal, stable, global attributions are prone to depression

rumination

amplifies depression

paranoid schizophrenia

delusions of persecution and grandeur

catatonic schizophrenia

immobility, frenzied motor activity

disorganized schizophrenia

deterioration of adaptive behavior, frequent incoherence, complete social withdrawal

undifferentiated schizophrenia

diagnosis of schizophrenia but cannot be placed into the other three categories

anxious-fearful cluster

avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive

dramatic-impulsive cluster

histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial

odd-eccentric cluster

schizo, schizotypal, paranoid

etiology

genetic predisopostions

dissociative amnesia

sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is to extensive to forget

dissociative fugue

lose memory of entire life along with personal identity

Somatization Disorder

Marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin

Hypochondriasis

Excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.

Conversion Disorder

Characterized by a significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic basis

internal attributions

personal trains, feelings, abilities

external attributions

environmental factors

harold kelley

covariation model

covariation model

consistency, distinctiveness, consensus

internal attribution

high consistency, low distinctiveness, low consensus

external attribution

low consistency OR high consistency, high distinctiveness, high consensus

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