Royal officials sent out by Richelieu to execute orders of the central government. They had conflict with provincial governors, the intendants won most of these conflicts, which strengthened the crown.
Pope 1534-1549. In 1535 he appointed a reform commission to study the condition of the church. Formally recognized the Jesuits and summoned the Council of Trent. This Council strengthened the Roman Catholic Church.
1450-1500. A Portuguese navigator and explorer. The first European to lead a 1487 voyage around the Cape of Good Hope on the Southern most tip of South Africa.
Inflation that caused the wage earners, laborers and salaried workers lose their standard of living. While the rich got richer. This led to valuable stimulus and prosperity of the sixteenth century.
Military changes from 1560-1660. Standing armies, first developed by Gustavus Adolphus, the king of Sweden. Developed flexibility in tactics.
Philip II (Spain)
The King of Spain (1556-1598). Advocated militant Catholicism. 'The most Catholic King". He attempted to make Spain a great power. His attempt to crush Calvinism, caused the Revolt of the Netherlands. The Calvinist revolted due to taxes and oppression of their religion.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
A massacre of Huguenots in August 1572. Three thousand were killed in Paris. The King was persuaded by the Guise family that the large gathering of Huguenots for a royal wedding was a threat. For three days Catholic mobs roamed the streets killing Huguenots.
Henry of Navarre
The Bourbon Ruler of navarre. The political leader of the Huguenots. Married Charles IXs' daughter. Converted back to Catholicism after gaining the throne as King of France.
Thirty years war: Causes and Effects
Conflict over religion and territory and for power among European ruling families. Phase 1: Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crush Protestant princes. Czech leaders are all executed. Phase 2: Protestants hired a new leader, Gustavus Adolphus, he lands in Northern Germany and pushes Catholic forces South, he dies in battle. Phase 3: Remaining years dominated by French-specifically Cardinal Richelieu- all other European forces join in the fight
Cuius Regio, Eius religio
The ruler determines the religion; the thinking of Germany
(Swedish Phase) Protestant who revived Sweden and revolutionized national army (drafts, arrow volleys and versitility)
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
The official end of the Thirty Years' War in Germany, recognized Calvinism as a legitmatereligion, Swiss Independence as well as the formation of the Dutch Republic
a monarchy that is limited by laws and a constitution
Sovereign power or ultimate authority is the Kings, who claimed to rule by divine right
Cardinal and chief minister to Louis XIII (1624-1642). He strengthened the power of the monarchy. He attacked the Huguenots; reformed the navy and army; crushed any rebellions and advanced royal absolutism; he raised money by any methods required and he supervised a foreign policy that was designed to make France the greatest power in Europe. Put France in debt.
Catholic League (France and HRE)
Formed to counteract the Protestant Union. This is sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Roman Catholics as the Holy League, a major player in the French Wars of Religion, was formed by Duke Henry of Guise in 1576. The League intended the eradication of Protestants—also known as Calvinists or Huguenots—out of Catholic France during the Protestant Reformation.
Government according to a constitution
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese explorer. He sponsored expeditions of discovery in the Atlantic Ocean, down the western coast of Africa.
Although he was called Prince Henry the Navigator by the English, Prince Henry never actually sailed on any of the voyages of discovery he sponsored. Instead, Prince Henry established a school for the study of the arts of navigation, mapmaking, and shipbuilding. This would allow sailors to better guide their ships and to come up with new ship designs.
The growing support for Gallican opinion was a reflection of the emergence of the Politique Party after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day. In the opinion of this moderate Catholic group, toleration should be granted to the Huguenots for the sake of peace and national unity. Given the generally fanatical religious climate, this meant that the Politiques were condemned as atheists by the extremists of both sides.
"The society of Jesus". Founded by a Spanish Nobelman, Ignatius of Loyola, was given the approval of Pope Paul III in 1540. They established schools and became the most famous educators in Europe. Recruited other nations to the Catholic faith. Won Poland back for the Catholics
Vasco da Gama (1460-1524)
The Portuguese navigator led an expedition at the end of the 15th century that opened the sea route to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. Said he came in search of Christians and Spices. He didn't find Christians but he found spices.
Elizabeth I (England)
half sister of Queen Mary (bloody Mary), she became Queen. She wanted peace in England. She was basically protestant, but wanted peace with the Catholics. She encouraged English piracy and she secretly aided the French Huguenots. Defeated the Spanish in the "Spanish Armada"
French Wars of Religion
fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the March 1, 1562 massacre of 1,000 Hugeunots at Vassy to 1598. In the early to middle part of the 16th century, the French Protestant John Calvin created the doctrine and conventions for a uniquely French form of Protestantism.
Urged on by Rome, which had recently lost control of the Catholic Church in England under the will of King Henry VIII, King Henri II of France attempted to crush a movement he perceived to be a threat to his power. His attempt was unsuccessful, as were those of his three sons who all became King of France. Instead, the country was severely divided by the Wars of Religion.
Index of prohibited Works
in 1557 Pope Paul IVcreated an index of forbidden books which all Roman Catholic were prohibited from reading or owning. Abolished in 1966
Edict of Nantes
Issued in 1958, it acknowledged Catholocism as the official religion of France, but guaranteed the huguenots the right to worship in selected places in every district and them to retain a number of fortified towns for their protection.
Defenestration of Prague
Event that sparked the Bohemian phase of the Thirty years' war (the first phase). Three catholic gov't officials were thrown out of a window in Prague
Emporer Ferdinand II
A devout Catholic. He tried to re-Catholicize Bohemia. He was a member of the House of Hapsburg. He was the King of Bohemia and Hungary. He was voted out,but because he was the Holy Roman Emporer, he didn't accept it. He took land from the Protestants. Catholicism became the sole religion
Edict of Restitution
The Edict of Restitution was Ferdinand's attempt to restore the religious and territorial settlement after the Peace of Augsburg (1555). The Edict resulted in a great transfer of power and property away from the Protestants to the Catholics. Thousands of Protestants had to leave where they lived and go to states that were Protestant. All properties taken from the Catholics by the Protestants had to be restored.
Exploration causes and effects
Money, religion and promise of fantastic lands (God, glory and Gold).
were originally French Huguenot theorists who opposed absolute monarchy at the end of the 16th century, known in particular for having theoretically justified tyrannicide. Born out of the context of the French Wars of Religion, they were most active between 1573, a year after the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, and 1584. The Monarchomachs pleaded in favour of a form of "popular sovereignty." Arguing for a sort of contract between the sovereign and the people, they have been considered as the precursors of social contract theories.
French Cardinal Marzarin was from Italy who attempted to carry on Richelieu's policies. He Dominated the government under Anne of Austria (King Louis XIII) widow. Nobles of the Robe led the first Fronde against his rule
Provincial law courts
Dutch revolt/revolt of the Netherlands
was the partially successful revolt of the protestant Seventeen Provinces of the defunct Duchy of Burgundy in the Low Countries against the ardent militant religious policies of Roman Catholicism pressed by both Charles I and son Phillip II of Spanish Empire. The religious 'clash of cultures' built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the perceived repression of the Spanish Crown. These tensions marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War and led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic.
In the sixteenth century the Roman church undertook to reform itself. This reform movement, extending into the following century, raised the moral and educational standards of the clergy; inspired the church with a renewed zeal and morale, which enabled it to win back areas endangered by Protestantism; and contributed significantly to producing the Catholic church as we know it today. The chief agencies in carrying out this work were the papacy, which was much different from the papacy of the Renaissance; a group of religious orders, some reformed and some new, most notably the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits; and the Council of Trent. The Inquisition and the Roman Index of Prohibited Books also had a part in the work.
Henry III (France)
Assassinated the Duke of Guise (also named Henry), then joined forces with Henry of Navarre to successfully crush the Catholic Holy League and retake the city of Paris
The House of Guise was a French ducal family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion.
The Guises were Catholic, and Henry Guise wanted to end growing Calvinist influence. The assassination of Guise heightened passions and inspired Catholic attacks on Huguenots and their culture.
(1451-1506) was an Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, hoping to find a route to India (in order to trade for spices). He made a total of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the years 1492-1504. Columbus sailed for King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella of Spain.
French Calvinist, The growth of this group of Protestants caused concern and helped fuel the French Wars of Religion
Catherine de' Medici
she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state. Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II. When he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III. He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life. she came to be blamed for the excessive persecutions carried out under her sons' rule, in particular for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France
The Protestant Union or Evangelical Union (German: Protestantische Union) was a coalition of Protestant German states that was formed in 1608 to defend the rights, lands and person of each member.
It was formed after the Holy Roman Emperor and Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria reestablished Roman Catholicism of 1555 should be conditional upon the restoration of all church land appropriated since 1552. The Protestant Princes met in Auhausen, near Nördlingen and on May 14, 1608, formed a military league under the leadership of Frederick IV of the Palatinate. In response, the Catholic League was formed in the following year, headed by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to resolve the religious differences created by the Protestant revolt. A group of Catholic bishops, theologians and others met in the city of Trent, border between Germany and Italy. The Roman Catholic Church got a clear body of doctrine and a unified church.
The Elector Palatine and Frederick I as the King of Bohemian. In 1618 the Protestant estates of Bohemia rebelled against the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and offered the crown of Bohemia to Frederick, choosing him since he was the leader of the Protestant Union, a military alliance founded by his father. Frederick duly accepted the crown (coronation on 4 November 1619), which triggered the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War
King of Denmark-lutheran, sympathized with the Protestants, wanted to gain possession of some Catholic territories in N. Germany.Defeated by Emporer Ferdinand II
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England. The Spanish Armada was defeated and England remained a Protestant Country
The king supreme authority over his territories
A political theorist. notion of sovereignty is that the power the sovereign holds must be absolute and permanent. If a ruler holds absolute power for the duration of his life he can be said to be sovereign. In contrast, an elected official or some other person that holds limited powers can not be described to be sovereign.
Louis XIII, King of France, was the son of Henri IV. and of Marie de Medici. He became king on his father's assassination in 1610; Louis was to marry Anne of Austria, daughter of the Spanish king, Philip III, and the Spanish prince, afterwards Philip IV, himself was to marry the Princess Elizabeth, the king's sister. His mother was trying bring an alliance between France and Spain and Austria.
Peace of Augsburg
The Peace of Augsburg, which was a result of the Reformation, was signed in 1555 and divided Europe into the Roman Catholic Church and the new Lutheran (Protestant) Church. This officially recognized the Lutheran Church and the right of people to worship as Protestants. The Calvinist were left out
1.A series of civil wars in France 1648-53, in which the nobles rose in rebellion against Mazarin and the court during the minority of Louis XIV. Although some concessions were obtained, the nobles were not successful in curbing the power of the monarchy
(1478-1541) was a Spanish conquistador who traveled through much of the Pacific coast of America along Peru. He "discovered" the Incan empire and conquered it brutally and quickly, stealing immense hoards of gold, silver, and other treasures.
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Justification by faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531)
Became home to protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas. Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva by 1540
When England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and formed the Church of England. Also King henry invented just so he could divorce his wife
French Wars of Religion
For 30 years battles between the Catholics and the Huguenots raged in France. It wasn't until 1598 when the king issued the Edict of Nantes that the wars ended.
a dramatic rise in prices (inflation). A major problem in europe in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, causes economic collapse in Spain
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
reason of state
The principle that a nation should act on the basis of its long term interests and not merely to further the dynastic interests of its ruling family.
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science. (p. 466)
Sir Francis Bacon
Developed the Scientific Method through the Inductive method (specific to general), wrote Novum Organum.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
king of France from 1643 to 1715
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
(theology) being determined in advance
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
according to the Catholic Church, people were supposed to do this, like penance; Luther says that this is not needed, and only faith is needed
formation of many other religious sects following the creation of Lutheranism (included Anabaptists), they were rejected by Luther who was a conservative in his beliefs
one in which the reform of religious ritual and belief occurred with at least the tacit support of the territorial lord or prince
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
Spirit of the laws
Written by Montesquieu, this document outlined the concept of separation of powers
French politician who served as an adviser to Louis XIV. Colbert reformed taxes, centralized the administration, and improved roads and canals in an effort to encourage trade
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
also known as the regulatory court, became Calvin's instrument of power. This body was composed of the elders and pastors and was presided over by one of four syndics. It enforced the strictest moral discipline.
series of violent uprisings during the minority of Louis XIV triggered by oppressive taxation of the common people, ambitions of the nobles, and efforts of the parlement of Paris (highest French judicial body) to check the authority of the crown; the last attempt of the French nobility to resist the king by arms.
The overthrow of English King James II in 1688 and his replacement by Willian and Mary.
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
"ON THE CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS", believed punishments should serve only as deterrents, not exercises of brutality, opposed capital punishment
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.