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What is a genome?

The complete complement of an organismʹs genes

Which of the following statements about genes is incorrect?

One gene only is used in a specific cell type.

Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction differ in all but which of the following ways?

Asexual reproduction is utilized only by fungi and protists, whereas sexual reproduction is utilized only
by plants and animals.

If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularly desirable set of traits,
which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route to establishing a line of such plants?

Clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one.

Asexual reproduction results in identical offspring unless which of the following occurs?

Mutation

The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?

Every human cell

A geneʹs location along a chromosome is known as which of the following?

Locus

What is a karyotype?

A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to size and shape

At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?

Metaphase

The human X and Y chromosomes

include genes that determine an individualʹs sex.

Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?

Each cell has 8 homologous pairs.

Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life
cycles have in common?
I. Alternation of generations
II. Meiosis
III. Fertilization
IV. Gametes
V. Spores

II, III, and IV

Which of these statements is false?

At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.

In animals, meiosis results in gametes, and fertilization results in

zygotes.

Referring to a plant sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that leads directly to the
formation of gametes?

Gametophyte mitosis

Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?

A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid
pollen grain (gametophyte).

The karyotype of one species of primate has 48 chromosomes. In a particular female, cell division goes awry
and she produces one of her eggs with an extra chromosome (25). The most probable source of this error would
be a mistake in which of the following?

Either anaphase I or II

A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. We can therefore conclude which of the following?

Its gametes must have 23 chromosomes.

A triploid cell contains three sets of chromosomes. If a cell of a usually diploid species with 42 chromosomes
per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following?

63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3

A karyotype results from which of the following?

The ordering of human chromosome images

After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is

haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids.

How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that have replicated their DNA and are just about
to begin meiosis?

They have half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.

When does the synaptonemal complex disappear?

Late prophase of meiosis I

Tetrads of chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle; alignment determines independent
assortment.

Metaphase I

Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs; crossing over may occur.

Prophase

Centromeres of sister chromatids disjoin and chromatids separate.

Anaphase II

Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?

Homologous chromosomes are separated.

A cell divides to produce two daughter cells that are genetically different

The statement is true for meiosis I only.

Homologous chromosomes synapse and crossing over occurs.

The statement is true for meiosis I only

Chromatids are separated from each other.

The statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II.

Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs.

The statement is true for meiosis I only.

You have in your possession a microscope slide with meiotic cells on it and a light microscope. What would
you look for if you wanted to identify metaphase I cells on the slide?

Tetrads lined up at the center of the cell

Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?

Synapsis of chromosomes

If an organism is diploid and a certain gene found in the organism has 18 known alleles (variants), then any
given organism of that species can/must have which of the following?

At most, 2 alleles for that gene

Whether during mitosis or meiosis, sister chromatids are held together by proteins referred to as cohesions.
Such molecules must have which of the following properties?

They must be removed before anaphase can occur.

Experiments with cohesions have found that

cohesions are protected from cleavage at the centromere during meiosis I.

A tetrad includes which of the following sets of DNA strands?

Two sets of sister chromatids that have synapsed

A certain femaleʹs chromosomes 12 both have the blue gene and chromosomes 19 both have the long gene. As
cells in her ovaries undergo meiosis, her resulting eggs (ova) may have which of the following?

One chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene

If a female of this species has one chromosome 12 with a blue gene and another chromosome 12 with an orange
gene, she will produce which of the following egg types?

1/2 blue and 1/2 orange gene eggs

A female with a paternal set of one orange and one long gene chromosomes and a maternal set comprised of
one blue and one short gene chromosome is expected to produce which of the following types of eggs after
meiosis?

Each egg has 1/4 chance of having blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange short combinations

Chiasmata are what we see under a microscope that let us know which of the following is occurring?

Crossing over

How does the sexual life cycle increase the genetic variation in a species?

By allowing independent assortment of chromosomes

For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and
paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?

About 8 million

Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of

the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the
metaphase plate during meiosis I.

When pairs of homologous chromosomes separate during anaphase I,

the sister chromatids remain attached to one another.

Natural selection and recombination due to crossing over during meiosis I are related in which of the following
ways?

Recombinants may have combinations of traits that are favored by natural selection.

A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is

A sperm

Which life cycle stage is found in plants but not animals?

Multicellular haploid

Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during

meiosis I.

Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that

sister chromatids separate during anaphase.

If the DNA content of a diploid cell in the G1 phase of the cell cycle is x, then the DNA content of the same cell
at metaphase of meiosis I would be

2x

How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made
by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n = 8)?

16

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