All living organisms must... (energy)
Produce energy from the environment in which they live, store energy for future use, and use energy in a controlled manner.
Energy of ATP becomes available when...
The chemical bond is broken
convert light energy into chemical energy
Where does photosynthesis occur?
Where do light-dependent reactions take place?
What is the molecule that traps the sun's energy?
How is the energy produced in the electron transport chain used?
To form ATP or to pump hydrogen ions into the center of the thylakoid disc.
What happens once the electrons reach the end of the second electron transport chain?
The NADP+ takes them to the stroma of the chloroplast and combines with H+ to form NADPH
What happens in photolysis?
Water molecules are split for electrons; 2 water molecules yield an oxygen molecule, four electrons, and four hydrogen ions.
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?
What does the Calvin Cycle use?
ATP and NADPH formed in the light-dependent reactions
How many rotations yeild glucose? (CALVIN CYCLE)
What is cellular respiration?
The breaking down of glucose to obtain energy
What happens in glycolysis?
Glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
Glycolysis is ______.
ATP gain in glycolysis
Two fuel the process and four are produced so the net gain is two ATP
What is the carrier protein after glycolysis?
What does NAD+ form?
NADH when carrying an electron
What happens after glycolysis? (With the pyruvic acid before the half step)
The pyruvic acid molecules move to the mitochondria
Where does glycolysis occur?
The cytoplasm of the cell
Tell about the half step with pyruvic acid. (Process and produces)
The pyruvic acid loses one molecule of CO2 and combines with Coenzyme A to form Acetyl CoA. This produces NADH and H+
What happens in the Citric acid cycle? Also called?
Krebs cycle; glucose is broken down
ATP gain in the Krebs cycle
One for each turn
What electron carriers are used in the Krebs cycle?
NAD+ and FAD
What are formed in the Krebs cycle? (Besides ATP)
3 molecules of NADH+H+ and one FADH2 are formed
What is produced in the Krebs cycle?
ATP and CO2
Where is the electron transport chain located?
What passes the electrons to the electron transport chain? (CR)
NADH and FADH2
How is the energy lost in CR electron transport chain used?
Pump H+ ions into the center of the mitochondrion or to form ATP
What is the final electron acceptor? What does it do?
It is oxygen; Oxygen combines with four H+ ions to form two molecules of water.
How many molecules of ATP are formed from the electron transport chain?
What can the cell NOT replace in anaerobic conditions?
Tell about lactic acid fermentation.
Two molecules of pyruvic acid use NADH to form two molecules of lactic acid. The NAD+ is then free to be used in glycolysis in which two more ATP are formed. The lactic acid then is transported to the liver where it is converted back into pyruvic acid.
What causes muscle fatigue?
Lactic acid buidup in the muscles.
Where is lactic acid produced?
In the muscles during strenuous exercise.
What does alcoholic fermentation produce?
CO2 and ethyl alcohol
What is an organism that uses alcoholic fermentation?