first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
a vitamin derivative that combines with pyruvic acid to enter the krebs cycle
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
a gradient across the cristae that is created by the energy from the ETC, which creates potential energy that can be used to do work
oxygen (role in ATP synthesis)
attracts the protons and electrons from across the cristae and is their final receptor; creates a pull allowing ATP synthase channel to function; this oxygen turns into water
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
change light energy into chemical energy and produce ATP and NADPH in the process - electrons in chlorophyll get excited and escape into ETC
doesnt require sunlight because it uses carbon dioxide, ATP and NADPH are used to create glucose. also known as calvin cycle
A three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the Calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds
the incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic compounds