king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715); Was 4 year old boy when his reign started; Boaste "I am the state; Was called "The Sun King".
Thirty years' war
A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. Wars ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
1)Bohemian Protestants revolt
4)Peace of Westphalia
This was the first woman monarch to rule in modern Central Europe in 1740. She was the eldest daughter of Charles VI. She had to fight to keep control of her empire; Eldest daughter of Charles VI, heir to Austria; Mother of Marie Antoinette, had to fight off Prussia as soon as she ascended to the throne
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe.
Seven years war
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America, a conflict in Europe, North America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which the forces of Britain and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, Russia, and other countries.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. (p. 552)
English Civil War
Charles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator. Established Commonwealth; Drafted a Constitution; Put down a rebellion in Ireland;
form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by a constitution
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers