Byzantine emperor who created a Body of Law and waged wars at great cost to reunite the empire
Holy book of Islam, considered to be the word of God (Allah) as messages heard by Mohammad from the archangel Gabriel
Muslim dynasties who were lead by Caliphs (successors of Muhammad)
Followers of Ali: Muhammad's son in law, married to his last daughter Fatimah
Followers of the mainstream Caliphs
Gave the name Carolingian to the dynasty, renowned for defeating Muslim army in the Battle of Tours
Basis of modern letter fonts, invented in the 9th century to standardize manuscript handwriting and make it more readable across the whole Carolingian empire
System where a man would pledge loyalty to a lord and carry out his commands, collect taxes, and get troops toether; vassals looked to lords to give them land in return for their service; pledging ceremony took place between lord and vassal; vassals could pledge to multiple lords
Land provided to vassals tying them to lords, relationship of mutual obligation where lords provide vassals political protection
A trade organization within a city or town that controlled product quality and cost and outlined members' responsibilities
A person who has learned a particular trade or craft but has not become an employer, or master craftsman
Abbey of Cluny
Founded by Duke William of Aquitaine; a monestary that established high ideals for monks and revived old ideals of working and being isolated
Pope Gregory VII
Fought against Henry IV -Investiture Conflict; issued decree in 1075 forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from lay leaders
Holy Roman Emperor of Germany who argued with the Pope over lay investiture
Universal state ruled by the popes under God's law. Clear administrative structure of the Catholic church (pope, cardinals, archbishops, bishops, priests)
Concordat of Worms
A compromise between the king and the Pope that stated that the church alone could grant a bishop his church power but his power could be vetoed by the king
Group of warriors established in 1120 to protect the pilgrims and defend Jerusalem.
A Christian religious sect in southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries, were attacked in the Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229)
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England.
Archbishop of Canterbury who refused to allow king to try clergy in royal courts; murdered by knights believed they were working on behalf of the king; proclaimed a saint
Fourth Lateran Council
Medieval church council held in 1215 which input greater structure, affirmed the doctrine of transubstantiation and strengthened Papal authority placing an emphasis on the sacraments. Enhancing the power of priests
The period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome
Russian princes who served as Mongol tax collectors
Battle of Kulikovo Field
Mongols were defeated, led to the fall of the Mongol empire 100 yrs later
People who whipped themselves to cleanse their sin--they thought Plague was God's punishment for sins.
Joan of Arc
A peasant girl whose conviction that God had sent her to save France in fact helped France win the Hundred Years' War.
A period in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
A statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527)
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe "laid the egg that Luther hatched"
Peace of Westphalia
Peace treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and set the standard for secular power politics overshadowing religion
The secret army/police created by Ivan The Terrible that he used to kill anyone who got in his way (i.e. the Boyars)
Table of Ranks
An official hierarchy established by Peter the Great in imperial Russia that equated a person's social position and privileges with his rank in the state bureaucracy or army. Allowed non nobles to advance
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543), findings were understood that mans status on Earth was less important
Scientist who built the first telescope and proved that planets and moons move. Persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas
Known as a deductive reasoner who started with big concepts and worked down to smaller ones. Believed entire world could be understood through reason
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation.