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As part of CSMA/CD, a process known as ____________________ allows the NIC issue a special 32-bit sequence that indicates to the rest of the network nodes that its previous transmission was faulty and that those data frames are invalid.

jamming

Nearly all NICs contain a(n) ____, the device that transmits and receives data signals.

data transceiver

By far, the most popular expansion board NIC is one that uses a(n) ____ bus.

PCI

PCIe slots vary depending on the number of ____ they support.

lanes

CompactFlash is an example of a peripheral device attached to the computer's ____ bus.

external

The primary difference between the two USB standards is ____.

speed

____ is a set of data or instructions that has been saved to a ROM (read-only memory) chip (which is on the NIC).

Firmware

Each time a computer starts up, the device drivers for all its connected peripherals are loaded into ____.

RAM

If the ____ NIC LED indicator is blinking, the NIC is functioning and receiving frames.

RX

A(n) ____ is the circuit board wire over which a device issues voltage to signal this request.

interrupt

____ is a type of microchip that requires very little energy to operate.

CMOS

The ____ is a simple set of instructions that enables a computer to initially recognize its hardware.

BIOS

The ____ setting specifies, in hexadecimal notation, which area of memory will act as a channel for moving data between the NIC and the CPU.

base I/O port

A NIC's transmission characteristics are held in the adapter's ____.

firmware

A ____ is a repeater with more than one output port.

hub

____ hubs possess internal processing capabilities.

Intelligent

Switches can create ____ by grouping a number of ports into a broadcast domain.

VLANs

To eliminate the possibility of a broadcast storm, switches and bridges implement the ____.

STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)

Switches that operate anywhere between Layer 4 and Layer 7 are also known as ____ switches.

content

A ____ is a multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network.

router

____ routing is a technique in which a network administrator programs a router to use specific paths between nodes.

Static

____ are combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two dissimilar kinds of networks.

Gateways

A computer's ____________________ is the circuit, or signaling pathway, used by the motherboard to transmit data to the computer's components, including its memory, processor, hard disk, and NIC.

bus

A(n) ____________________ NIC is integrated into the motherboard.

on-board

A(n) ____________________ is software that enables an attached device to communicate with the computer's operating system.

device driver

WANs typically send data over ____ available communications networks.

publicly

The individual geographic locations connected by a WAN are known as ____.

WAN sites

Because WAN connections require routers or other Layer 3 devices to connect locations, their links are not capable of carrying ____ protocols.

nonroutable

On most modern WANs, a ring topology relies on ____ rings to carry data.

redundant

The portion of the PSTN that connects any residence or business to the nearest CO is known as the ____.

local loop

A PSTN offers ____ security.

marginal

____ is an updated, digital version of X.25 that also relies on packet switching.

Frame relay

In a process called ____, two 64-Kbps ISDN B channels can be combined to achieve an effective throughput of 128 Kbps.

bonding

A ____ converts digital signals into analog signals for use with ISDN phones and other analog devices.

terminal adapter

ISDN PRI uses ____ B channels and one 64-Kbps D channel.

23

The speed of a T-carrier depends on its ____ level.

signal

At the customer's demarcation point, either inside or outside the building, T-carrier wire pairs terminate with a ____.

smart jack

A ____ aggregates multiple DSL subscriber lines and connects them to the carrier's CO.

DSLAM

Broadband cable requires many subscribers to share the same local line, thus raising concerns about ____ and actual (versus theoretical) throughput.

security

What sets ATM apart from Ethernet is its ____ size.

fixed packet

SONET's extraordinary ____ results from its use of a double-ring topology over fiber-optic cable.

fault tolerance

The data rate of a particular SONET ring is indicated by its ____, a rating that is internationally recognized by networking professionals and standards organizations.

OC (Optical Carrier) level

____ networking refers to dialing directly into a private network's or ISP's remote access server to log on to a network.

Dial-up

____ is the preferred communications protocol for remote access communications.

PPP

____ is the standard for connecting home computers to an ISP via DSL or broadband cable.

PPoE

____ virtual computing allows a user on one computer, called the client, to control another computer, called the host or server, across a network connection.

Remote

In wireless communication, to exchange information, two antennas must be tuned to the same ____.

frequency

A directional antenna issues wireless signals along a(n) ____ direction.

single

In ____, a wireless signal splits into secondary waves when it encounters an obstruction.

diffraction

____ is a most significant problem for wireless communications because the atmosphere is saturated with electromagnetic waves.

Interference

In ____ wireless systems, the result is a point-to-point link.

fixed

In ____ scanning, the station transmits a special frame, known as a probe, on all available channels within its frequency range.

active

A unique characteristic of the 802.11 data frame is its ____ field.

Sequence Control

The average geographic range for an 802.11a antenna is ____ meters.

20

____ is the least popular WLAN standard.

802.11a

An 802.11g antenna has a geographic range of ____ meters.

100

____ may use either the 2.4-GHz or 5-GHz frequency range.

802.11n

____ is an 802.11n feature that allows two adjacent 20-MHz channels to be combined to make a 40-MHz channel.

Channel bonding

____ is an 802.11n network feature allowing the combination of multiple frames into one larger frame.

Frame aggregation

Using Bluetooth version 2.0, communicating nodes can be as far as ____ meters apart.

30

____ is a command-line function for viewing and setting wireless interface parameters and it is common to nearly all versions of Linux and UNIX.

iwconfig

If intermittent and difficult-to-diagnose wireless communication errors occur, ____ might be the culprit.

interface

LEO satellites orbit the Earth with an altitude as low as ____ miles.

100

____ satellites are the type used by the most popular satellite Internet access service providers.

Geosynchronous orbiting

Satellite Internet access providers typically use frequencies in the C- or ____ bands.

Ku-

Dial return satellite Internet access is a(n) ____ technology.

asymmetrical

Satellite return Internet access is a(n) ____ technology.

symmetrical

The use of multiple frequencies to transmit a signal is known as ____________________ technology.

spread- spectrum

____ is one of the most important functions an NOS provides.

Client support

A piece of software called ____ translates requests and responses between a client and a server.

middleware

A(n) ____ is a list that organizes resources and associates them with their characteristics.

directory

A(n) ____ is the record of a user that contains all of his properties, including rights to resources, password, name, and so on.

account

The printer queue is a ____ representation of the printer's input and output.

logical

The term ____ memory refers to the RAM chips that are installed on the computer's system board and whose sole function is to provide memory to that machine.

physical

____ memory may be logically carved out of space on the hard drive for temporary use.

Virtual

A(n) ____ is a routine of sequential instructions that runs until it has achieved its goal.

process

A(n) ____ is a self-contained, well-defined task within a process.

thread

The support and use of multiple processors to handle multiple threads is known as ____.

multiprocessing

A(n) ____ is a pictorial representation of computer functions that, in the case of NOSs, enables administrators to manage files, users, groups, security, printers, and so on.

GUI

A workgroup is a group of interconnected computers that share each other's resources without relying on a central ____.

server

The directory containing information about objects in a domain resides on computers called ____ controllers.

domain

The process of copying directory data to multiple domain controllers is known as ____.

replication

Active Directory organizes multiple domains hierarchically in a domain ____.

tree

Naming (or addressing) conventions in Active Directory are based on the ____ naming conventions.

LDAP

A GUID (globally unique identifier) is a 128-bit number that ensures that no two objects have ____ names.

duplicate

The primary function of the UNIX ____ is to coordinate access to all your computer's hardware, such as the disks, memory, keyboard, and monitor.

kernel

UNIX was one of the first operating systems to implement a ____ file system.

hierarchical

Solaris employs the file system called ____ for its native file system type.

UFS

Every UNIX and Linux system contains full documentation of UNIX commands in the ____ pages.

man

A class ____ network class is reserved for special purposes.

D

In ____ addressing, only Class A, Class B, and Class C addresses are recognized.

classful

In classful addressing, the Class B IPv4 address network ID is located in the ____.

first 16 bits

In classful addressing, Class C IPv4 address host information is located in the ____.

last 8 bits

Within a classful addressing subnet mask, the ____ bits indicate that corresponding bits in an IPv4 address contain network information.

1

Within a classful addressing, ____ is the default subnet mask for a Class C address.

255.255.255.0

When using classful IPv4 addressing, a network ID always ends with an octet of ____.

0

Because the octets equal to 0 and 255 are ____, only the numbers 1 through 254 can be used for host information in an IPv4 address.

reserved

CIDR notation takes the form of the network ID followed by a(n) ____, followed by the number of bits that are used for the extended network prefix.

forward slash ( / )

The ____ gateway is the gateway that first interprets its outbound requests to other subnets, and then interprets its inbound requests from other subnets.

default

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