Describe the levels of ecological organization
Individual (one organism)
Population (one species)
Community (many species)
Ecosystem (many communities)
Biome (many ecosystems)
Biosphere (many biomes)
Qualitative or quantitative
done in an artificial environment, lab, or in the natural ecosystem
used to gain insight into a complex phenomenon
Source of energy for most ecosystems
when an organism obtains energy from inorganic chemicals, as opposed to photosynthesis
If only 10% of the energy is passed on, what happens to the rest?
Part is lost as heat, another part is used by the consumed organism for life processes
shows relative amount of energy available at each trophic level
represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level
Pyramid of Numbers
shows relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level (not always shaped like a pyramid)
Can energy be recycled?
No, energy is a flow, not a cycle.
Four ways that carbon cycles through the biosphere
Why do organisms require nitrogen?
All organisms require nitrogen to make amino acids (used to build proteins)
Movement of energy
Energy is passed from one organism to another
Movement of nutrients
Nutrients are cycled through the atmosphere, ocean, and other organisms.
What is the most limiting nutrient in saltwater environments?
What is the most limiting nutrient in freshwater environments?
What phenomenon keeps the Earth's temperature within a suitable range for life?
the greenhouse effect
The Greenhouse Effect
greenhouse gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth's temperature range.
sunlight strikes different latitudes at different angles
Heat transport through the biosphere
wind and ocean currents transport heat throughout the Earth
Can two different species can occupy the same niche?
No, because due to competition, one species would eventually move, adapt to a different food source, or die out.
How are aquatic ecosystems classified?
By depth, flow, temperature, and the chemistry of overlying water