extreme scarcity of food
"Little ice age"
small drop in overall temperatures, causing change of growing season, creating a famine all over Europe
most common form, spread by black rats infested with fleas, least toxic, but killed almost all victims
one of the cities where the plague originated
People who drank and partied a lot, lived freely, ran through others houses, weren't stopped, mocked the devil
went from town to town, whipped and spiked themselves, attacked clergy and killed Jews
opposition against Jews
worst organized massacres against Jews
fixed regular payments payed to peasants by nobles
1358 peasant revolt, started when peasants started to take too much power, and revolted against nobles when they tried to lower the wages to regain power.
French chronicler who claimed that things will never be good until everyone is treated equally
English Peasant Revolt of 1381
caused by rising expectation, and monarchy's attempt to raise revenues by imposing a poll tax. The peasants refused to pay these taxes and revolted
Famous revolt in Florence (1378). Were woolen industry depressed won some from the government such as; having the ability to form guilds, and be represented by the government (not for long)
French royal family. Rulers had increased power over nobles. Royal officials often interfered with affairs involving vassals. In 14th century this family failed to produce a male heir.
King Edward III
English king, closes relative to Capetians, mother was Isabella, but the French didn't count it and started a new dynasty with the Valois family.
King Philip IV
Valois. Became king of France because Edward III couldn't. (1328-1350)
Weren't involved in the 100yrs war, French used noble calvary, and English used peasants and paid foot soldiers
Pikes and Longbows
Weapons on large sticks with iron or steel points or very big bows that could shoot really far
Where Philip IV raised a large force and was defeated by the English
The Black Prince
Son of Edward III, attacks were devastating and profitable for the English. Gave hunger deprivation and death to the French.
Where English battled French and captured King JOhn in 1356. Ended the first phase of the war
English, renewed the war while the French were having a civil war
Charles VI (Charles the Dauphin)
French king. Weak and timid, failed to rally French against the English, who had besieged Orleans to gain access to Loire
Battle of Agincourt
Henry V renewed war while French were in civil war. Dukes of BUrgundy and Orleans tried to control Charles VI. Invaded in 1415 at this battle, French were defeated
Treaty of Troyes
Once Normandy was conquered they forged alliance with Duke of Burgundy, leading to treaty. States that, Henry V was married to Catherine (daughter ofCharles VI) and recognized as heir to the throne
Joan of Arc
Born 1412, experienced visions and believed that her favorite saints had commanded her to free France and have the dauphin crowned as king. Feb. 1429 she made her way to the dauphins court, and persuaded Charles to go with the army to Orleans. They were inspired and liberated Orleans, changing the war
the year that the only part of France left in England's hands was Calais
Form of payment, were substituted for military services
(Edward's grandson) didn't begin well because of the peasant revolt, and his reign was troubled by competing groups of nobles pursuing their own interests.
Led one of the factions, which defeated the king's forces and killed him, led to the war of the Roses
War of the Roses
struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII. Series of civil wars
Philip IV's salt tax
Philip IV's hearth salt
Supported by Paris and other towns, with the english renewal of the 100 Years War in 1415 they sipported the English cause and the English monarch's claim to the throne
1356 Golden Bull and electors
Bull that states that four lay princes and three ecclesiastical rulers would serve as electors with the legal power to elect the king. (emperor)
replaced republican government in Italy, tendency caused by lack of central government allowing many city-states to be independent
Led soldiers that the city-states relied on. Sold services of their bands to the highest bidder.
Duchy of Milan
One of the richest city-states in Italy, one of the most agitated until the Visconti's established themselves as hereditary despots in 1322. Giangaleazzo V. (1385-1402) Then, the duchy exended power over Lombardy and threatened to conquer part of N Italy until his death
Republic of Florence
Initially free commune ruled by patrician glass of nobles (grandi). Rapid expansion of economy made development of popolo grasso class possible. Assumed they were dominant
Wealthy merchant industrial class in the Republic of Florence
Republic of Venice
Grew rich from trade in the E Mediterranean and N Europe. Many merchants became wealthy. 1297 constitution let patricians take control. The Great Council was closed to everyone but 200 families. All magistrates of the city were chosen from or by tis council so it formed a hereditary patriciate that dominated the city. At end of 14th century they had created a commercial empire, est. colonies in E Mediterranean and Black Sea
Wealthy merchants that dominated society
Helped start Great Schism, fought with Boniface VIII over whether or not he could tax the clergy. Elected a French pope in 1305 to avoid threat.
Fought with Philip IV over whether Philip could tax the clergy. Wrote Unam Sanctum in 1302, captured by French in Anagni, but later rescued. Died soon after capture
Written by Boniface VIII, helping to show his power over Philip
Clement V and Avignon
Became pope ruling out of Avignon, him and successors would remain there for 72 more years creating another crisis for the church.
Pope Gregory XI
Returned to rome in 1377. Died in 1378, and when he died the cardinals were forced to elect an Italian pope.
Urban VI and Clement VII were pope, starting the issue. Europe became divided, each part supporting a different pope. Lasted almost 40 years, had bad effect on the church. Aggravated financial problems in the church and damaged the faith of Christian believers
Weakened the institution that had become the foundation of the church when the popes claimed the other as one
The belief that only a general council of the church could end the schism and bring reform to the church. Taken up my many churchmen after the schism Council of Pisa was called in 1409 to elect a pope, and elected Alexander V
Because of Preoccupation of popes, Avignonese papacy, and the Great Schism there was a decline in church power. The Black death and recurrences also impacted Christians. To respond to these they would stress good works
People believed they could use these to shorten the amount of time that souls spent in purgatory
Became popular with all of the problems, and could be done without clerics involved
The immediate experience of oneness with God. Meishter Eckhart (1260-1327) started movement in Germany. Spread to Low Countries known as the Modern Devotion started by Gerard Groote who said you have to imitate Jesus, creating another movement
William of Occam
14th century. (1285-1329). posed a major challenge to the scholastic achievements of the High Middle Ages. Came up with a new interpretation of nominalism, said that truths of religion could only be known by an act of faith.
(1245-1321) Exiled from Florence in 1302, wrote the Divine Comedy, telling a story of the soul's progression to salvation.
(1304-1374) From Florence, wrote many sonnets inspired by his love for a married woman Laura. Sang more of his own thought, reveals a sense of individuality which had never been seen before.
(1313-1375) Known mostly for prose, wrote Decameron at the time of the Black Death, presents society from a secular point of view, his later works become gloomier
(c.1340-1400) wrote Canterbury Takes, and brings a whole new sophistication to English vernacular language. Showed a range of English society, and used some of his characters to criticize the church. But he was a devoted Christian that believed the church could be reformed
Christine de Pizan
(1364-1430) Wrote The Book of The City of Ladies (1404) and criticized many male writers that believed women needed to be controlled my men. Believed that women are equal with men, and encouraged them to defend themselves against the attacks of men who couldn't understand them
(1244-1377) Created a new form of art, used a new kind of realism trying to imitate the nature that Renaissance artists used.
They tried to keep them cleaner by clearing wastes, closing bathhouses, causing a decline in personal cleanliness. Authorities would organize brothels. More regulation of urban activities by town governments after Black Death
Women were viewed as incapable of undertaking all of men's activities. Some women benefited from the Black Death, because the jobs needed to be filled. Women could also carry on their husbands' shops or buisnessess
Taken care of more, major increase in specialized jobs caused need for them to be more educated, many parents were concerned about survival and health after the plague
What the pre-plague medicine of the university-trained physicians was normally based on. Consisting of Blood, Phelgm, Yellow Bile, and Black Bile. Heath was achieved when they were all balanced
Invented in end of 13th perfected in 14th. Best design made by Giovanni di Dondi. Mainly put in church towers or municipal buildings. Introduces new conception of time, ad made it possible to plan day. Brought regularity to the peoples lives
Invented 14th fixed 14th. Not particularly effective and very expensive. Because of high cost of parchment people wrote small, so now they could read it
Changed warfare dramatically. Dangerous bacause they could easily blow up, but once improved worked very well. Made castles, city walls, and armored knights outdated.