-part of the sentence about wich something is said
-always a noun, pronoun; or a word, clause, phrase
-subject without its modifiers
-subject with all of its modifiers
-composed of two or more simple subjects
-the part of the sentence that shows action or says something about the subject
-verb without its modifiers
-simple predicate with all its modifiers
composed of two or more simple predicates
a group of related words that function as a single part of speech
-follows a noun or a pronoun and renates it
-noun +its modifiers
-gives new/more info about the noun/pronoun it follows
a phrase based on one of the three types of verbals: gerund, infnitive, or participle
consists of a gerund (verb-ing functioning as a noun) and its modifiers.
functions as noun
consists of an infinitive and its modifiers
-functions as noun,adj, or adv
consists of a past or present participle and its midifiers.
-functions as adj.
consists of a main verb preceded by one or more helping verbs
a group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or a pronoun
-mainly function as adj and adv
consists of a noun and a participle (+ participle's object if there is one, and any modifiers)
-functions as modifier that adds info to the entire sentence and is set apart by commas
a group of related words that has both a subject and a predicate
presents a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence
also called a subordinate clause, does not present a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence
used like an adverb to modify a verb, and adj or adv.
-begin with subordinating conjunctions
used in place of a noun
-functions as direct object
modifies a noun/pronoun
names a particular person, place, thing ,idea
does not name a particular person, place, thing, idea
names a thing that can be seen ,touched, heard, smelled, tasted
names an idea, condition, feeling
names a group/ unit
one person place thing idea
more than one person place thing idea
ex) uncle, brother, men, bull, rooster
ex) aunt, sister, women
noun without gender
masculine OR feminine noun
nominative case noun
subject of a clause.
also can be a predicate noun --- follows a "be" verb and renames the subject
possessive case noun
objective case noun
can be a direct object, indirect object, or an object of the preposition
links the subject to a noun/adjective in the predicate
auxiliary verb (helping verb)
helps create tense, voice, mood
communicates an action that is complete in itself. it does not need an object to receive the action
an action verb that needs an object to complete its meaning
receives the actions of a transitive verb directly from the subject
receives the action of a transitive verb indirectly. names the person "to whom" or "for whom" smth is done
present perfect tense verb
present helping + past action
past perfect tense verb
past helping + past action
future perfect tense verb
future helping+ past action
present continuous tense verb
am/is/are + ~ing form of verb
action that is not finished and on going when its stated.
past continuous tense verb
was/were + ~ing
action that was happening at a specifit time in the past
future continuous tense verb
will be + ~ing
action that will happen at certain time in the future
indicates that the subject of the verb is, has been, or will be doing smth more directly and lively.
indicates that the subject of the verb is being, has been, or will be acted upon.
--> the person/thing creating the action is not always stated.
used to state a fact or to ask a question
created from a proper noun and is capitalized
after linking verb, describes the subject.
ex) School is cool
some are adj/pronoun.
ex) both are stinky.
the feet are both stinky.
describes noun/pronoun without comparing
~er, more, less
compares two nouns
~est, most, least
compares more than three nouns
adverbs of time
tells when, how often, how long
adverbs of place
tells where, to where, from where
adverbs of manner
~ly, tell how smth is done
adverbs of degree
how much, how little
adverb of manner; describes a verb/adj/adv without comparing
adverb of manner; compares how two things are done
~er, more ,less
adverb of manner; comparers how three or more things are done.
~est, most, least
first word in a prepositional phrase
ex) to, under, at, for ,by ,of
preposition and the object and everything else
balances two words.
connect two things that are of equal importance.
not only...but also
connect clauses NOT of equal importance
made up of one or more words that express a complete thought.
in sentences that begin with there or it followed by a form of the "be" verb, the subject comes after the verb.
-also delayed in questions
understood subject and predicate
either the subject or the predicate may be "missing" from a sentence, but both must be clearly understood.
a word that is derived from a verb but acts as another part of speech.
-three types: gerunds, infinitives, and participles
a verb form that ends in -ing and is used as a noun
a verb form that is usually introduced by "to"; may be used as noun, adj, or adv
a verb form ending in -ing or -ed that acts as an adj.
a word used in place of a noun
is the noun that the pronoun refers to or replaces
can take the place of any noun.
* reflexive pronoun
* intensive pronoun
is formed by adding -self or -selves to a personal pronoun.
- can be a direct object, indirect object, an object of the preposition, or a predicate nominative
a reflexive pronoun that intensifies, or emphasizes the noun or pronoun it refers to.
relates or connects an adjective clause to the noun or pronoun it modifies
-what, who, whose, whom, which, that
refers to unnamed or unknown people or things
-all, anybody, each, everyone, few, many, etc.
asks a question
- who, what, whose, whom, which
points out people, places, or things without naming them.
- this, that, these, those
first person pronoun
used in place of the name of the speaker(s)
second person pronoun
name the person(s) spoken to.
third person pronoun
name the person or thing spoken about
-she, he, it, her, his
nominative case pronoun
can be the subject of a clause
- I, you, he, she, it, we, they
-is a predicate nominative if it follows a "be" verb or another linking verb and renames the subject
possessive case pronoun
show possession or ownership.
-apostrophes NOT used
-my, his, her
objective case pronoun
can be a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of the preposition
-it, them etc.