skilled workers who make goods by hand
a fabric made from the fine threads produced by certain insect larvae
yin and yang
two forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, and Yang the active, positive force
mandate from heaven
The belfief that an emperor has an allowance from heaven to rule; this is revoked during times of disaster
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
chinese philosphere and teacher; his belifs,known as confusoinism greatly influenced chinese life
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
founder of Legalism
Chinese School of Thought: Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or 'path' of nature.
the "Old Master" who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.). He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163)
the great wall
a vast Chinese defensive fortification begun in the 3rd century B.C. and running along the northern border of the country for 2,400 km
shi Huangdi's tomb
A elaborate tomb containing clay models of soldiers Construction started in 246 BC.
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
God send 4 sights. Sad old man, sick man, dead man and content monk. Only good is monk. Sneaks away from family one night known as (Great Renuncation). Tries Hinduism and Janeism. Is tempted by god of death to return to his old ways. Realizes suffering comes from desire. Becomes Buddha (woken up one) and becomes enlightened. Brings teachings to others
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during period of Six Dynasties; proclaimed himself emperor; supported by nomadic peoples of northern China; established Sui dynasty. was a legalist though.
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
City in the Wei Valley in eastern China. It became the capital of the Zhou kingdom and the Qin and early Han Empires. Its main features were imitated in the cities and towns that sprang up throughout the Han Empire. >(p. 164)
the most powerful tang emperor, who restored the civil service exam system: he hired officials based on there test results and not on there families. he also gave land to farmers and stabilized the countryside
of worldwide scope or applicability
independent states that have to acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler
She led the Tang Dynasty (625-705 AD); Only women emperor of China; powerful and cruel, along with talented and intelligent
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
invented around A.D. 900 by Chinese alchemists. initially used it for fireworks then applied it to their military.
small pox vaccine
Attenuated virus, pierce outer layer of skin, for lab workers, military personnel, and health care workers
a printing technique developed by early chinese printers, who hand-carved characters and illustrations into a block of wood, applied ink to the block, and then printed copies on multiple sheets of paper