The branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.
The issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior.
Twins who are genetically identical.
A research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time.
A research method that investigates behavior as participants age.
A research method that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time
Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information.
The parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted.
The new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm.
A developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs.
A developing individual from eight weeks after conception until birth.
age of viability
The point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely.
Environmental agents such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produce a birth defect.
A newborn child.
Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.
The decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual.
Parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children.
Parents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although they are warm, require little of them.
Parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them.
Parents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached.
The innate disposition that emerges early in life.
Development of individuals' interactions and understanding of each other and of their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society.
According to Erikson, the first stage of psychosocial development, occurring from birth to age 1½ years, during which time infants develop feelings of trust or lack of trust.
The period during which, according to Erikson, toddlers (ages 1½ to 3 years) develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged or shame and self doubt if they are restricted and overprotected.
According to Erikson, the period during which children ages 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.
According to Erikson, the last stage of childhood, during which children age 6 to 12 years may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less sociable.
The process by which a child's understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience.
According to Piaget, the stage from birth to 2 years, during which a child has little competence in representing the environment by using images, language, or other symbols.
The awareness that objects—and people—continue to exist even if they are out of sight.
According to Piaget, the period from 2 to 7 years of age that is characterized by language development.
A way of thinking in which a child views the world entirely from his or her own perspective.
principle of conservation
The knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects.
concrete operational stage
According to Piaget, the period from 7 to 12 years of age that is characterized by logical thought and a loss of egocentrism.
formal operational stage
According to Piaget, the period from age 12 to adulthood that is characterized by abstract thought.
The way in which people take in, use, and store information.
An awareness and understanding of one's own cognitive processes.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
According to Vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, comprehend or perform a task on his or her own.
The developmental stage between childhood and adulthood.
The period at which maturation of the sexual organs occurs, beginning at about age 11 or 12 for girls and 13 or 14 for boys.
According to Erikson, a time in adolescence of major testing to determine one's unique qualities.
The distinguishing character of the individual: who each of us is, what our roles are, and what we are capable of.
According to Erikson, a period during early adulthood that focuses on developing close relationships.
According to Erikson, a period in middle adulthood during which we take stock of our contributions to family and society.
According to Erikson, a period from late adulthood until death during which we review life's accomplishments and failures.
The period beginning in the late teenage years and extending into the mid-20s.
The period during which women stop menstruating and are no longer fertile.
genetic preprogramming theories of aging
Theories that suggest that human cells have a built-in time limit to their reproduction and that they are no longer able to divide after a certain time.
wear-and-tear theories of aging
Theories that suggest that the mechanical functions of the body simply stop working efficiently.
A progressive brain disorder that leads to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities.
disengagement theory of aging
A theory that suggests that aging produces a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels.
activity theory of aging
A theory that suggests that the elderly who are most successful while aging are those who maintain the interests and activities they had during middle age.
The process by which people examine and evaluate their lives.