Urinary System & Male Genital System

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CPC Exam Study Guide - Vocabulary

anuria

suppression, cessation, or failure of the kidneys to secrete urine.

azoospermia

failure of the development of sperm or the absence of sperm in semen; one of the most common factors in male infertility.

balanoposthitis

inflammation and/or infection of the glans penis and prepuce.

brachytherapy

form of radiation therapy in which radioactive pellets or seeds are implanted directly into the tissue being treated to deliver their dose of radiation in a more directed fashion.

calculus

abnormal, stone-like concretion of calcium, cholesterol, mineral salts, or other substances that forms in any part of the body.

chordee

ventral (downward) curvature of the penis due to a fibrous band along the corpus spongiosum seen congenitally with hypospadias, or a downward curvature seen on erection in disease conditions causing a lack of distensibility in the tissues.

chronic interstitial cystitis

persistently inflamed lesion of the bladder wall, usually accompanied by urinary frequency, pain, nocturia, and a distended bladder.

circumcise

circular cutting around the genitals to remove the prepuce or foreskin.

condyloma

infectious tumor-like growth caused by the human papilloma virus, with a branding connective tissue core and epithelial covering that occurs on the skin and mucous membranes of the perianal region and external genitalia.

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder.

cystitis cystica

inflammation of the bladder characterized by the formation of multiple cysts.

cystocele

herniation of the bladder into the vagina.

cystostomy

formation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the bladder.

dysuria

pain upon urination

epididymis

coiled tube on the back of the testis that is the site of sperm maturation and storage and where spermatozoa are propelled into the vas deferens toward the ejaculatory duct by contraction of smooth muscle.

epididymo-orchitis

inflammation of the testes and epididymis.

epispadias

male anomaly in which the urethral opening is abnormally located on the dorsum of the penis, appearing as a groove with no upper urethral wall covering.

extrophy of bladder

congenital anomaly occurring when the bladder everts itself, or turns inside out, through an absent part of the lower abdominal and anterior bladder walls with incomplete closure of the pubic bone.

Foley catheter

temporary indwelling urethral catheter held in place in the bladder by an inflated balloon containing fluid or air.

hematospermia

blood in the seminal fluid, often caused by inflammation of the prostate or seminal vesicles, or prostate cancer.

hematuria

blood in the urine, which may present as gross visible blood or as the presence of red blood cells visible only under a microscope.

horseshoe kidney

congenital anomaly in which the kidneys are fused together at the lower end during fetal development, resulting in one large, horseshoe shaped kidney, often associated with cardiovascular, central nervous system, or genitourinary anomalies.

hydronephrosis

distention of the kidney caused by an accumulation of urine that can't flow out due to an obstruction that may be caused by conditions such as kidney stones or vesicoureteral reflux.

hydroureter

abnormal enlargement or distension of the ureter with water or urine caused by an obstruction.

hyperplasia

abnormal proliferation in the number of normal cells in regular tissue arrangement.

hypospadias

fairly common birth defect in males in which the meatus, or urinary opening, is abnormally positioned on the underside of the penile shaft or in the perineum requiring early surgical correction.

incontinence

involuntary escape of urine.

impotence

psychosexual or organic dysfunction in which there is partial or complete failure to attain or maintain erection until completion of the sexual act.

lithotripsy

destruction of calcified substances in the gallbladder or urinary system by smashing the concretion into small particles to be washed out. This may be done by surgical or noninvasive methods, such as ultrasound.

lumen

the space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube.

meatus

opening or passage into the body.

nephrostomy

placement of a stent, tube, or catheter that forms a passage from the exterior of the body into the renal pelvis or calyx, often for drainage of urine or an abscess, for exploration, or calculus extraction.

neurogenic bladder

dysfunctional bladder due to a central or peripheral nervous system lesion that may result in incontinence, residual urine retention, infection, stones, and renal failure.

nocturnal enuresis

bed wetting

oligospermia

insufficient production of sperm in semen, a common factor in male infertility.

orchiectomy

surgical removal of one or both testicles via a scrotal or groin incision, indicated in cases of cancer, traumatic injury, and sex reassignment surgery.

patency

state of a tube-like structure or conduit being open and unobstructed.

perineal

pertaining to the pelvic floor area between the thighs; the diamond-shaped area bordered by the pubic symphysis in front, the ischial tuberosities on the sides and the coccyx in the back.

peritoneum

strong, continuous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavity.

Peyronie's disease

development of fibrotic hardened tissue or plaque in the cavernosal sheaths in the penis. This causes pain and a severe chordee or curvature in the penis, typically during erection.

phimosis

condition in which the foreskin is contracted and can't be drawn back behind the glans penis.

priapism

persistent, painful erection lasting more than 4 hours and unrelated to sexual stimulation, causing pain and tenderness.

prepuce

fold of penile skin covering the glans

prolapse

falling, sliding, or sinking of an organ from its normal location in the body.

prostate

male gland surrounding the bladder neck and urethra that secretes a substance into the seminal fluid.

retroperitoneal

located behind the peritoneum.

scrotum

skin pouch that holds the testes and supporting reproductive structures.

seminal vesicles

paired glands located at the base of the bladder in males that release the majority of fluid into semen through ducts that join with the vas deferens forming the ejaculatory duct.

Skene's gland

paraurethral ducts that drain a group of the female urethral glands into the vestibule.

spermatic cord

structure of the male reproductive organs that consists of the ductus deferens, testicular artery, nerves and veins that drain the testes.

stricture

narrowing of an anatomical structure

testes

male gonadal paired glands located in the scrotum that secrete testosterone and contain the seminiferous tubules where sperm is produced.

torsion of testes

twisting, turning or rotation of a testicle upon itself.

trigone

triangular, smooth area of mucous membrane at the base of the bladder, located between the ureteric openings in back and the urethral opening in front.

tunica vaginalis

serous membrane that partially covers the testes formed by an outpocketing of the peritoneum when the testes descend.

urachus

embryonic tube connecting the urinary bladder to the umbilicus during development of the fetus that normally closes before birth, generally in the fourth or fifth month of gestation.

urethra

small tube lined with mucous membrane that leads from the b ladder to the exterior of the body.

ureterocele

saccular formation of the lower part of the ureter, protruding into the bladder.

urethral caruncle

small, polyp-like growth of a deep red color found in women on the mucous membrane of the urethral opening.

urostomy

creation of an opening from the ureter to the abdominal surface to divert urine flow.

vas deferens

duct that arises in the tail of the epididymis that stores and carries sperm from the epididymis toward the urethra.

vesical fistula

abnormal communication between the bladder and another stricture.

vesicoureteral reflux

urine passage from the bladder back up into the ureter and kidneys that can lead to bacterial infection and an increase in hydrostatic pressure, causing kidney damage.

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