Vital Signs (def. and 5 signs)
Outward signs of what is going on inside the body:
3. Skin Color, Temperature, and condition (capillary refill).
5. Blood Pressure
The rhythmic beats felt as the heart pumps blood through the arteries.
Number of pulse beats per minute.
Taken by counting pulsations by 30 seconds and multiplying by 2. If pulse rhythm or force is not normal, continue count for full 60 seconds.
Normal Pulse Rate: Adult
60-100 (except athletes)
Normal Pulse Rate: Adolescent 11-14yrs
Normal Pulse Rate: School age 6-10 yrs
Normal Pulse Rate: Preschooler 3-5yrs
Normal Pulse Rate: Toddler 1-3 yrs
Normal Pulse Rate: Infant 6-12 months
Normal Pulse Rate: Infant 0-5 months
Normal Pulse Rate: Newborn
A rapid pulse. Above 100 bpm
A slow pulse. below 60 bpm.
Rhythm (regular or irregular) and force (strong or weak) of the pulse.
Causes of rapid, regular, full pulse
Exertion, fright, fever, high blood pressure, first stage of blood loss.
Causes of rapid, regular thready pulse
Shock, later stages of blood loss.
Causes of slow pulse
Head injury, drugs, some poisons, some heart problems, lack of oxygen in children.
Cardiac arrest (clinical death)
Pulse felt at wrists (used in patients 1 yr. and older)
Pulse felt in the upper arm (used in patients 1 yr or younger)
Pulse felt along the large carotid artery on either side of the neck.
The act of breathing in and out.
Number of breaths taken in 1 minute.
Taken by counting respirations (after det. pulse) for 30 seconds and multiplying by 2.
Chest or abdomen moves an average depth with each breath and patient is not using accessory muscles to breath.
Respiratory Quality: Normal
When there is only slight movement of the chest or abdomen.
Respiratory Quality: Shallow
Increase in the work of breathing, use of accessory muscles, nasal flaring, retractions above collarbones or between ribs.
Respiratory Quality: Labored
Obstructed. Wheezing, gurgling, crowing, etc.
Respiratory Quality: Noisy
The regular or irregular spacing of breaths.
Normal Respiratory Rate: Adult
Normal Respiratory Rate: Adolescent 11-14yrs
Normal Respiratory Rate: School age 6-10
Normal Respiratory Rate: Preschooler 3-5 yrs
Normal Respiratory Rate: Toddler 1-3 yrs
Normal Respiratory Rate: Infant 6-12 months
Normal Respiratory Rate: Infant 0-5 mos
Normal Respiratory Rate: Newborn
Causes of snoring
Causes of Wheezing
Medical problem such as asthma
Causes of Gurgling
Fluids in airway
Causes of Crowing
Medical problem that cannot be treated on scene.
Check nail beds, inside of cheek, inside of lower eyelid.
Normal Skin Color
Abnormal Skin Color
Pale, cyanotic, flushed, jaundiced.
Causes of Pale skin
Constricted blood vessels possibly from blood loss, shock, hypotension, emotional stress.
Causes of Cyanotic Skin
Lack of oxygen in blood cells and tissues resulting from inadequate breathing or heart function.
Causes of flushed skin
Exposure to heat, emotional excitement
Causes of Jaundiced skin
Causes of blotchy skin
Causes of cool, clammy skin
Shock or anxiety
Causes of cold, moist skin
body losing heat
Causes of cold, dry skin
exposure to cold.
Causes of Hot, dry skin
High fever, heat exposure
Causes Hot moist skin
High fever, heat exposure
Causes of goose bumps
chills, communicable disease, exposure to cold, pain or fear.
the black center of the eye
To get larger
To get smaller
Reaction of pupils to light by changing size.
Causes of Dilated Pupils
Fright, blood loss, treatment with prescription eye drops
Causes of Constricted Pupils
Drugs, prescription eyedrops
Causes of Unequal Pupils
Stroke, head injury, eye injury, artificial eye
Causes of Lack of Reactivity
Drugs, lack of oxygen to brain
The force of blood against the walls of the walls of blood vessels.
Pressure created when the heart contracts and forces blood into the arteries.
Systolic Blood Pressure
The pressure remaining in the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is relaxed and refilling.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
Normal Blood Pressure: Adult
Less than or = 120/less than or = 80
Normal Blood Pressure: Infants and Children
Approx. 80+2* age/?????????
Normal Blood Pressure: 11-14 yrs
Avg. 114 (88-120)/Average 76
Normal Blood Pressure: 6-10
Average 105 (80-115)/Average 69
Normal Blood Pressure: 3-5
Average 99 (78-104)/ Average 65
Causes of High Blood Pressure
Medical condition, exertion, fright, emotional distress, or excitement.
Causes of Low Blood Pressure
Athlete or other "normal" low blood pressure, blood loss, late sign of shock.
Cuff and gauge used to measure blood pressure.
Listening. Stethoscope is used to auscultate for characteristic sounds.
Touching or feeling. A pulse or blood pressure may be palpated with the fingertips.
Machine that automatically inflates a blood pressure cuff and measures blood pressure.
Blood Pressure Monitor
6 Steps to Determine Blood pressure by Auscultation
2. Position the cuff (around upper arm) and stethocope (over brachial pulse)
3. Inflate cuff until brachial pulse no longer heard +30mm
4. Obtain systolic pressure by releasing air at 5-10mm/sec. Note gauge when pulse returns (=systolic)
5. Obtain diastolic pressure by continuing to deflate and marking point when sounds turn dull or muffled or disappear.
6. Record measurements.
4 Steps to Determine Blood pressure by Palpation
1. Position the cuff and find radial pulse
2. Inflate cuff until no longer feel brachial pulse +30mm
3. Obtain systolic by slowly deflating and noting when pressure returns.
4. Record by noting "by palpatation"
Objective indication of patient's condition observed by another person.
Subjective indication of a person's condition felt and reported by patient.
Present/Past medical history of patient.
Pertinent past history
Last oral intake
Events leading to injury or illness