US history-Semester 2 exam

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Populist Movement

1890s; movement of farmers in the late 1800s to become politically involved to protect their interest in America; movement wanted to expand the money supply and regulate Big Business

Omaha Platform

political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.

James B. Weaver

American politician who leaned toward agrarian radicalism; he twice ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. presidency, as the Greenback-Labor candidate (1880) and as the Populist candidate (1892).

Silver Issue

The bitter controversy surrounding the issues of "free silver" and "sound money," parties argued coinage of silver (on Bryan's Democratic side) or adherence to the gold standard (on the Republican side)

Bland Allison Act

1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.

Populist Party

Founded 1891 - called for free coinage of silver and paper money, national income tax, direct election of senators, regulation of railroads, and other government reforms to help farmers

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

1896 Presidential Election

election R-William McKinley, D-William Jennings Bryan this was a realigning election. In 1896 Bryan lost in 1896 but hes the one that had the realigning message, the message was "the system needed to be democratized the political system and making it more responsive to the common man" he lost because had the wrong weapon to fight the battle he had a very narrow issue. His issue was the free coinage of silver. In 1896 the populist party merged with the democrats.

Cross of Gold Speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

Progressive Movement

reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices in American life.

Women suffrage movement

International Movement of the 1880's, that sought to challenge the legal, political, and economic disabilities towards European and American women. This is historically significant because the women eventually gained the right to vote and the right to hold a job. The extension of enlightenment ideas onto women.

16 amendment

congress has power to impose a tax on people's income

17 amendment

Law established that US senators would be elected directly by the people, rather than by state legislatures

18 amendment

Prohibition of alcohol

19 amendment

Gave women the right to vote

theodore roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

progressive reform

To improve society and create order and stability. Direct primary, initiative, referendum. They tried to make cities more efficient and improve the structure of cities. City commissions and manages reformed. Some cities lowered streetcar fares, worked on plans to keep electric rates low, offered free kindergarten, increased wages for city employees, restricted the capacity of state governments, managed own taxes. Some states created commission groups to specialize in different areas of issue. A mayor was a political model and a manager was a finance model.

municipal reform

Changes in city governments made to encourage greater efficiency, honesty, and responsiveness residents, particularly middle-class businessmen, organized against the corruption and inefficiency that they thought plagued their cities. This movement was particularly strong in cities controlled by political machines, the undemocratic and corrupt arrangements through which bosses could profit by controlling city governments.. The greatest era of municipal reform came in the late 1800s and early 1900s; introduced by Republican Mayor Samuel M. Jones

muckrackers

Investigative journalists. Ida Tarbell (History of Standard Oil), Sinclair Lewis (Shame of the Cities), Upton Sinclair (The Jungle); journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics in order to bring about reform.

jane addams

1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

spanish american war

War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

cuba

the largest island in the West Indies

teller amendments

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war. Also would give Cubans freedom when they defeat the Spanish.

platt amendments

a treaty between the U.S. and Cuba that attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence.

the maine

An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.

yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

hearst

United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)

pulitzer

United States newspaper publisher who established the Pulitzer prizes (1847-1911), the owner of the New York World who used yellow journalism during the Spanish-American War

puerto rico

a self-governing commonwealth associated with the United States occupying the island of Puerto Rico

panama canal

Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000

the philippines

Spanish colony, Philippines wanted independence. America destroyed Spanish fleet, America captured Manila with help from Filipino rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo.

Hawai'i

- Independent before becoming a part of the United States - Kingdom of Hawaii existed from 1810-1893 when the monarch was overthrown by U.S. businessmen - Independent republic from 1894-1898 when it was annexed by the U.S. becoming a territory in 1900, and a state in 1959 - Example of imperialism

Roosevelt (Big Stick)

statement by Theodore Roosevelt that the United States had a right to intervene in Latin America to preserve law and order
-addition to the Monroe Doctrine
* US takes the role of the "police" in the Western Hemisphere
T.R use of the military- *MOST EFFECTIVE

Taft (Dollar)

27th president of the U.S, 1909-1913; continued Progressive reforms of President Theodore Roosevelt; promoted "dollar diplomacy" to expand foreign investments

Wilson

28th President of the United States; led the United States in World War I and secured the formation of the League of Nations (1856-1924)

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

World War I

a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918

1920s

Period of false economic prosperity, women cut the hair, jazz becomes popluar

Great Depression

the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.

New Deal

the legislative and administrative program of President F. D. Roosevelt designed to promote economic recovery and social reform during the 1930s

World War II

a war between the Allies (Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherl

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

Vietnam

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

Civil Rights

right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equ

Presidential Administrations

• Hoover: rugged individualism and trickle down economics.
• Nixon and Reagan: New Federalism.
• Roosevelt: New Deal.
• Clinton: Welfare Reform.

War and Diplomacy

armed conflict from the pre-colonial period to the twenty-first century; impact of war on American foreign policy and on politics, economy, and society

American Identity

views of the American national character and ideas about American exceptionalism. Recognizing regional differences within the context of what it means to be an American

Economic Change

Change in the way goods, resources, and knowledge are produced and/or used in society

Populism

Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

(crown prince) heir to Austrian throne from 1896: assassinated on June 28, 1914 during good-will mission in Sarajevo, Bosnia (Aus-Hung) by Serbians, sparking WWI: caused Germany and other Austro Allies to declare war on Serbia and its allies

Allies

in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers

Central Powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies

Food Administration

This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.

War Labor Board

settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high-led to strikes

Committee of Public Information

Created in 1917 by Woodrow Wilson, headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.

Bolshevik Revolution

The overthrow of Russia's Provisional Government in the fall of 1917 by Lenin and his Bolshevik forces, made possible by the government's continuing defeat in the war, its failure to bring political reform, and a further decline in the conditions of everyday life.

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; although suggested by Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined and it remained powerless; it was dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed

The Fourteen Points

Wilson's proposition for world peace and democracy after the horrors of the global conflict in WWI. Was viewed with mixed reaction from many Americans who wanted to return to post-war isolationism and those that wanted America to play a large role in post-war peace

Selective Service Act

This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans; The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons

Senate Fight over Treaty of Versailles

did not want to sign the treaty
thought it would take away US sovereignty

The Great War

Known as World War I and the War to End All Wars: a global military conflict that embroiled most of the world's great powers from 1914 to 1919.

The first red scare

a period of time in American History when the governemtn went after "Reds" (Communists) and others with radical views

bolshevism

A radical ideology supported by Vladimir Lenin. Favored a closed party consisting of and run by professional revolutionaries and supported the idea of a dictatorship that would accelerate the transition to socialism. It placed an emphasis on the working class, from which it drew much of its support

Palmer Raids

A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities

FBI

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both a federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency.

J. Edgar Hoover

FBI directer who urged HUAC to hold public hearings on communist subversion to find communist sympathisers and fellow travelers to isolate them and their influence. FBI sends agents to infiltrate groups suspected of subversion and wiretoppa telephnones

Sacco

United States anarchist (born in Italy) who with Bartolomeo Vanzetti was convicted of murder and in spite of world-wide protest was executed (1891-1927)

Vanzetti

United States anarchist (born in Italy) who with Nicola Sacco was convicted of murder and in spite of world-wide protest was executed (1888-1927)

Teapot Dome Scandal

a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921; became symbolic of the scandals of the Harding administration

Scopes Monkey Trial

1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism

Harlem Renaissance

a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

KKK

Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic; was formed in the 19th century to resist the emancipation of slaves; used terrorist tactics to suppress Black people

nativism

the policy of perpetuating native cultures (in opposition to acculturation)

National origins act

(CC) 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890. It excluded immigration of Asians, first was from 3%

flappers

carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.

"talkies"

motion pictures with synchronized sound for dialogue

Volstead Act

The Act [prohibition] specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors

Prohibition

the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

Stock Market Crash

Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.

Black Tuesday

October 29th, 1929: the day when prices in the stock market took a steep dive, plunging over $10 million dollars

Buying of margin

This kind of buying stocks was usually only used by poor and middle class people. They would buy the stock, but only pay for part of it and borrow money from the stockbrokers to pay the rest. Then when they sold the stock for a higher price, they would pay the broker off and keep the rest of the profit. This practice led to the great depression, because the banks couldn't get their money back when the stock market crashed.

Fordism

principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques

20th amendment

reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.

The Lost Generation

a group of American writers that rebelled against America's lack of cosmopolitan culture in the early 20th century. Many moved to cultural centers such as London in Paris in search for literary freedom. Prominent writers included T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Ernest Hemingway among others.

Jazz music

new form of music that blended African beats in the 1920s

breadlines

Many men had to stand in breadlines, similar to soup kitchens, in order to provide food to their family.

first new deal

Established to serve the "three Rs" Relief for the people out of work, Recovery for business and the economy as a whole, and Reform of American economic institutions

second new deal

a new set of programs in the spring of 1935 including additional banking reforms, new tax laws, new relief programs; also known as the Second Hundred Days.

dust bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

dorothea lange

United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)

election of 1932

Herbert Hoover/republican ("prosperity around the corner") vs. Franklin D. Roosevelt/democrat (3 R's- "relief, recovery, reform)= Roosevelt

fireside chats

informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people

the bank holiday

caused americans to regain confidence in the banking system

braintrust

professors from college to help FDR

demagogue

an orator who appeals to the passions and prejudices of his audience

francis perkins

was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of Roosevelt's cabinet who remained in offices for his entire Presidency

court packing plan

President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges

eleanor roosevelt

FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

Fascism

a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism)

Nazism

a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism

Adolf Hitler

This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Rhineland

name of the territory in which Hitler sent troops into in defiance of the Versailles treaty in 1935.

Austria

a mountainous republic in central Europe; under the Habsburgs (1278-1918) Austria maintained control of the Holy Roman Empire and was a leader in European politics until the 19th century

Chechoslovakia

Prague- 2nd rebellion

Poland

Germany's invasion of what European country marked the beginning of WWII?

Dawes Act

An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.

Neutrality Act

series of laws passed by Congress in 1935 that banned arms sales or loans to countries at war

Cash carry

policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.

lend lease

allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."

nye report

Report by US Senate. Supported US neutrality, by stating that US banks and corporations hoping to profit had tricked them into entering WWI.

atlantic charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war

blitzkrieg

German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack-1939

fall of france

Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.

evacuation of dunkirk

British and French troops retreated to the French beaches when Belgium was taken; Approximately 1000 ships sailed from England and rescued 340, 000 soldiers; Significant because it was a victory for the Allies and saved many to fight another day

battle of britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

invasion of soviet union

when Hitler broke the Nazi-Soviet Pact by invading Russia

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

allied powers

world war I alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.

axis powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

war agencies

Wilson created this as the first American contribution to the Allies, which was in shipping them needed supplies. It was staffed by volunteers.

rosie the riveter

symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war

japanese internment

Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States during WWII. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 me, women and children-were sent to hastly constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior.

war propaganda

Committee on Public Information called for censorship of press and developed materials (pamplets/posters/newsreels/etc) to make war look good and the enemy look bad

stalingrad

City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd. (p. 793)

d-day

Planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris

battle of the bulge

a battle during World War II; in December 1944 von Rundstedt launched a powerful counteroffensive in the forest at Ardennes and caught the Allies by surprise

battle of atlantic

Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. Caused Britain and the US to officially join the war after their ships were sunk. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war. 1939-1945

ve day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

island hopping

the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.

midway

naval battle of World War II (June 1942); land and carrier-based American planes decisively defeated a Japanese fleet on its way to invade the Midway Islands

guadal canal

U.S.'s first experience in jungle fighting with the Japanese took place here, 1943; strategies combined arms victory by allied forces over the japanese in the pacific theatre. allied victory; battle of hell

iwo jima

a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)

okinawa

a campaign in the closing days of World War II in the Pacific (April to June 1945); in savage close-quarter fighting United States marines and regular army troops took the island from the Japanese; considered the greatest victory of the Pacific campaign

firebombing of tokyo

bombing of Tokyo by the United States Army Air Forces; took place during the Pacific campaigns of WWII and included the most destructive bombing raid in history (1942-1945).

vj day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945

chester nimitz

United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966)

douglas mcarthur

commander in chief of US forces in the Pacific Theater of operations, Left the Philipines vowing "I shall return" during the Korean War, however, was fires for insubordination.

leyte gulf

largest naval battle of World War II; Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) mobilized nearly all of its remaining major naval vessels in an attempt to defeat the Allied invasion, but failed to achieve its objective, suffered very heavy losses, and never afterwards sailed to battle in comparable force; first battle in which Japanese aircraft carried out organized kamikaze attacks

enrico fermi

Italian nuclear physicist (in the United States after 1939) who worked on artificial radioactivity caused by neutron bombardment and who headed the group that in 1942 produced the first controlled nuclear reaction (1901-1954)

manhattan project

code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II

atomic fission

splitting of heavy elements like uranium to produce energy

leslie groves

(1) Army general in charge of the Manhattan Project; (2) later in charge of design of the Pentagon home to the military and the Defense Department (though only 5 stories tall--and thus less susceptible to attack--the Pentagon is by floor surface area the largest office building in the world)

j. robert oppenheimer

lead the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."

los alamos

This is the national laboratory in New Mexico founded during WWII to develop the atomic bomb.

trinity test site

Code name of first nuclear test at White Sands

little boy

the name of the FIRST atomic bomb, dropped on Hiroshima

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