Lamina propria mucosae
Ingestion of a raw potato delivers a new vaccine protein to elicit an immune response. The immune structure to interact with the vaccine protein?
Phagocytic cells and acute phase proteins
Inflammation and the resulting increase in vascular permeability permit leakage into damaged or infected sites are effected by
Activation of the alternate pathway
The serum of a pt, who has IgG and IgM deficiency, appears to fix complement in an assay for tetanus antibodies. What is the explanation?
A 3-year-old boy with genetic C3 deficiency has recurrent ear and lung infections due to pyogenic bacteria. Deficiency of what?
Chronic granulomatous dz
A very young child, w/ recurrent infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, now has numerous granulomas. TOW?
Treatment with which protease enzyme causes decrease in avidity of IgG w/o changing the specificity of the antibody?
Cells activated by both γ-IFN and CD40 are
High-dose chemo has caused severe bone marrow suppression in a pt with hematologic malignancy. Reversal is plausible with what?
Function of the T-lymphocyte receptor (CD3) complex of transmembrane proteins?
CD8+ T lymphocytes
The MHC class I pathway presents an antigen directly to what?
CD8+ T cells
HSV infection can block the transfer of antigenic peptides from the cytoplasm to the ER of the infected cells. As a result of this, action of what cell type is compromised?
CD4+ T cells.
Infection of the thyroid gland can induce the expression of MHC II molecules. Which cell types would initiate an autoimmune response, leading to Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
CD4+ T lymphocytes (Th1 response → γ-IFN)
PPD skin test (+) in a pt , who was vaccinated against turberculosis in his native country, reflects response of what cell type?
mediators from sensitized mast cells
A man with hx of MI is given a morphine injection for a new episode of chest pain; 10 mins later, he has itching and urticaria. Mechanism of this reaction?
Th1-mediated DTH reactions
Loss of skin pigments, sense of touch, inability to feel objects and pain in a pt from Africa, whose skin scraping contains AFBs, is caused by
Immunity to the donor MHC antigens.
A man with polycystic kidney dz, who receives a renal transplant and cyclosporine, develops a high temp and swelling and tenderness in the grafted kidney. TOW?
Inactivated rabies virus vaccine
A man who now has progressive stupor and laryngeal spasms for 3 days after pt was being attacked by a wild bat in a cave a month ago should have received
Alternative and lectin pathways of complements activated
IgM >> IgG
Classic complement pathway is activated by antibody-antigen complexes involving antibody class type
Chemotactic and anaphylotoxic complements are
successful opsonization of all non-encapsulated bacteria are by complement
Defect or deficiency of which complements predisposes individuals to infections caused by Neisseria spp., the causative agents of gonorrhea and meningitis
Th1 CD4 T cells
Antimicrobial (immune) response important for intracellular bacterial infections involves cell type
CD8 cytolytic T cells
Immune response important for viral infections involves cell type
Major antibody in secretions and plays a significant role in first-line defense at the mucosal level is
Main antibody in the initial "primary" immune response and allows good complement activation is
Fc region of this immunoglobulin binds to eosinophils, basophils and mast cells and is significant mediator of allergic (hypersensitivity) reactions
What on macrophages enables them to sense that the material is microbial in origin, and must therefore be eliminated quickly?
These oxygen-dependent enzymes: NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase are involved in killing of what?
These oxygen-independent enzymes/proteins: lysosome, lactoferrin, defensins and other cationic proteins are involved in killing of what?
Chronic granulomatous Dz. (Defect in Phagocytic N
Infections persist, because mϕ activation is defective, leading to chronic stimulation of CD4+ T cells in what dz?
(Need NADPH for the NaDPH-Oxidase to Product Superoxide)
Defective respiratory burst, predisposing chronic bacterial infection is associated with deficiency of what?
HLA-A, B, C
All nucleated cells express MHC I antigens
HLA-DP, DQ, DR
Antigen-presenting cells express MHC II antigens
Lymphocyte proliferation (T, B) and NK → cytotoxicity are undertaken by what cytokine?
B-cell activation, IgE and IgG4 switch, ↓ TH1 cells/ Mφ, ↓ IFN-γ, TH0 → TH2 are all undertaken by what cytokine?
Mφ activation; elevated expression of MHC and FcRs molecules on B cells, IgG2 class switching, increased IL-4 and TH2 are all undertaken by what cytokine?
The Th1 response, driven primarily by IFN-γ leads to the activation of
mast cells and eosinophils.
The Th2 response, driven primarily by IL-4 and IL-5, leads to the production of IgE and IgG4 and to the activation of
Variable T and B cells in DiGeroge's syndrome is associated with
Loss of Btk tyrosine kinase
No B cells and immunoglobulins in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's) is associated with
X-linked-defective WASP gene
Lack of anti-polysaccharide antibody and impaired T-cell activation causing Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is associated with
Inability to control B cell growth in X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome is associated with
basement membrane collagen type IV
Glomerulonephritis, pulmonary hemorrhage in Goodpasture's syndrome is caused by what autoantigen?
Hyperthyroidism in Grave's Dz is caused by what autoantigen?
Acetyl choline receptor
Progressive muscle weakness in Myasthenia gravis is caused by what autoantigen?
Myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein
Brain degeneration, paralysis in Multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by what autoantigen?
Type I hypersensitivity
Localized allergies (e.g., drug allergy, asthma, hay fever) and anaphylaxis (food, drug) w/ systemic inflammation throughout circulation are associated with reaction?
Type II hypersensitivity
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: Ab's produced vs RBC membrane Ag's, mismatched blood (transfusion rxn), and allergies to antibiotics (e.g., penicillins, sulfa drugs) are associated with reaction?
Type II hypersensitivity
Grave's Disease, Myasthenia Gravis, Goodpasture's syndrome are all associated with reaction?
Type III hypersensitivity
Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, serum sickness to horse diphtheria anti-toxin, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis are all associated with reaction?
Type IV hypersensitivity
Poison ivy, erythematous induration in tuberculin skin test, and transplantation/graft rejection are all associated with reaction?