Largest of the Deserts in Africa in the north.
Arabic word for "coastline"; it is located on the southern edge of the Sahara.
Grassy plains that cover most of Africa
A religion in which spirits play an important role in regulating daily life.
West African storytellers. They told the early history of Africa before written records.
The earliest known West African culture; They skipped their copper and bronze age and went straight to an iron age. This altered many people's ideas about the Africans.
A permanent move from one country or region to another.
Factors that either push people out of an area or pull them into an area.
Small groups that moved throughout Africa, spreading language and culture.
A kingdom that arose and conquered the kingdom of Kush; it was located in the countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia.
Aksum's chief seaport near present day Massawa; traders from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and the Roman Empire.
Strong ruler of the Aksum kingdom who helped it reach its height.
Steplike ridges constructed on mountain slopes, that helped the soil retain water and prevented its being washed downhill in heavy rains.
The land bridge that connected the Americas to Asia during the period of the Ice Age.
Period that lasted roughly 1.9 million to aobut 10,000 B.C. During this time is when the first Americans seemed to have arrived.
Corn; This was grown by early farmers in about 3400 B.C.
An area that stretches south from central Mexico to northern Honduras.
Mesoamerica's first known civilization builders.
Developed an advanced society to the southwest, in what is now the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
The first real urban center of the Zapotec in the Americas. This city had a commanding view of the entire valley, grew and prospered over the next several centuries.
The first influential civilization in South America that arose in the mountains.
Culture that flurished along hte southern coast of Peru from around 200 B.C. to 600 A.D.
Culture on the northern coast of Peru which lasted from about 100 A.D. to 700 A.D.
The name for God in Arabic. The Muslims as well as the Christians and Jews practiced monotheism.
A great prophet of Islam who was orphaned at the age of six. He was a wealthy trader.
Means "submission to the will of Allah," in Arabic.
Translates to "one who has submitted," in Arabic. These are those who followed the religion of Islam.
The migration of Muhammad to a town of Yathrib, which is over 200 miles north of Mecca.
The Islamic house of worship.
The obligation of all Muslims who are physically and financially able to perform a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetimes.
The holy book of the Muslims. This book contains the memorized and recited revelations of Muhammad received by the Angel Gabriel.
The Mulsim's idea the best model for proper living based on Muhammad's mission.
The guidance of the Qur'an and Sunna was assembled in a body of law. This system of law regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims.
Means "successor" or "deputy".
A Muslim family who came to power and moved the Muslim capital to Damascus.
Meaning the "party" they were the followers of Ali who was the first caliph.
Those who did not outwarly resist the rule of the Umayyads; meaning followers of Muhammad's example.
Rejected the luxurious life of hte Umayyads and persued a life of poverty and devoltion to a spirtitual path.
Groups who took control in 750 A.D. after the Umayyads were overthrown.
Muslim state formed in southern Spain.
Caliphate formed by Shi'a Muslims who claimed descent from Muhammad's daughter Fatima.
House of Wisdom
Opened in the early 800s by the Caliph al-Ma'mun which opened in Baghdad and is a combination library, academy, and translation center.
The art of beautiful hand-writing.
A high-ranking Byzantine nobleman who succeeded his uncle to the throne of the Eastern Empire.
Created a single, uniform code; after its completion, the code consisted of four works.
The crowning glory of Justinian's riegn was a church which means, "Holy Wisdom" in Greek.
The leading bishop in the East. He is the leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their worship.
The Pope ordered that the Byzantine Emperor be cast out from the Church.
Many Slavic languages, including Russian, are written in this alphabet which was created for Slavic languages.
The neighbors of the Byzantium to the north; they absorbed many of the Byzantine ways.
The grandson of Princess Olga who came to the throne in 980 and decided to convert the Empire to Christianity.
Yaroslav the Wise
Vladimir's son who came to power in 1019 and led Kiev to even greater glory than that of Vladimir.
Novgorod's prince and military hero who advised his fellow princes to cooperate with the Mongols.
Ivan the Terrible; He ruled for 43 years and took the name of czar to unify his people.
The Russian version of Caesar; Ivan III took this name and claimed his intent of making Russia a "Third Rome".
Group of migrating Turkish people that was named for the family that led them. In 1055, they attacked and captured Baghdad from the Persians.
Name for prime minister; this was the brilliant Nizam al-Mulk who was a Persian.
One of the most famous of the Seljuk sultans if not the most famous. The Seljuk rulers were called shahs for the Persian word for king; this was after Malik Shah.
Began the Tang Dynasty and had a reign which lasted from 626 to 649. This dynasty lasted for 300 years.
Empress and ruler during the campaign in Korea. She assumed the title of empress in 690 and was the only woman in China to ever do so.
A printer could arrange blocks of individual characters in a frame to make up a page for printing.
A large upper class that emerged and was made up of scholar officials and their families; a class of such powerful, well-to-do people.
Nomadic peoples who herded domesticated animals.
Steppe nomad who traveled together in kinship groups. Its members descended from a common ancestor.
Name excepted by the Mongol lead Temujin in 1206 which means "universal ruler" of the Mongol clans.
"Mongol Peace"; much like the Pax Romana, it was a time of stability and law and order for the Mongols from the mid-1200s to the mid-1300s.
The grandson of Genghis Khan who assumed the title of Great Khan in 1260. He ruled the entire Mongol Empire in theory although it had been split into four khanates in reality.
A young Venetian trader who traveled the Silk Roads in a caravan and met Kublai Khan as well and learned several Asian languages in his travels. Kublai Khan had Polo sent on many government missions until Polo left to return back to Venice in 1292.
Religion of early Japan that worshiped many gods and goddesses; means "way of the gods."
"One who serves"; Loyal bodyguards of the feudal lord they served.
"The way of the warrior"; Demanding code of behavior that samurais lived their lives by.
Title given in 1192 by the emperor to a Minamoto leader named Yoritomo; means "supreme general of the emperor's army."
In what is now Cambodia; for centuries was the main power on the Southeast Asian mainland.
One of the world's greatest architectural achievements and was a complex Buddhist temple and city.
Dynasty in Korea that lasted four and a half centuries, from 935 to 1392.
Medieval period; an era of European history that ushered in the gradual decline of the Roman Empire.
A Germanic people in the Roman province of Gaul; their leader, Clovis would bring Christianity to the region.
Church built religious communities that were built to adapt to rural conditions.
Worldly, power involving politics; under Pope Gregory I the papacy became the center of Rome's government.
The family that ruled the Franks from 751 to 987; was started when the pope anointed Pepin the Short as "king by the grace of God".
One of the two sons of Pepin the Short; became king after his older brother died in 771. His name was originally Charles but was called Charlemagne which means "Charles the Great".
A landowner who was granted a fief in exchange for military protection and other services.
Land granted in exchange for military protection and other services.
The person who receives the fief.
Mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lord's lands in exchange for fiefs.
People who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born.
The lord's estate; during the Middle Ages the manor system was the basic economic arrangement. The manor system rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serfs.
Church tax; all of the payments to the lord, peasant families owed to the village priest.
A code and complex set of ideals that demanded a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters.
Mock battles that combinedd recreation with combat training.
Traveling poet-musicians at castles and courts of Europe; they composed short verses and songs about the joys and sorrows of romantic love.
All of the bishops and priests who were under the authority of the Pope.
Important religious ceremonies.
Church law; all medieval Christian, kings and peasants alike followed this law in matters such as marriage and religious practices.
Holy Roman Empire
The German-Italian Empire created by Otto the Great and was first called the Roman Empire of the German Nation.
A ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials.
A practice in which Bishops sold positions in the Church.
A new style of architecture that developed in the early 1100s and evolved throughout medieval Europe. The name comes from the Germanic tribe named the Goths.
Pope who issued a call for a "holy war," or Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land.
A "holy war" to regain control of the Holy Land. There were multiple Crusades that lasted for the next 300 years.
Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader who in 1187, shocked Europeans when he captured Jerusalem.
Richard the Lion-Hearted
On of the three most powerful monarchs; he was an English king who fought many wars with Saladin that ended in a truce.
A long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
A court held by the Church to suppress heresy; used by Isabella and Ferdinand to unify their country under Christianity and to increase power.
Farmers could grwo on two-thirds their land each year, not just half of it.
An organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economics and social conditions of its members.
Increased availability of trade goods and new ways of doing business changed life in Europe.
Merchant-class town dwellers who resented the interference in their trade and commerce.
The everyday language of the homeland; used by a few remarkable poets.
Scholar and Saint who in the mid-1200s argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
Great universities that Thomas and his fellow scholars met at.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who claimed the English crown and invaded England with a Norman army.
English king who added to the holdings of the land in both Normandy and England by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine from France.
The rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of law. Today the principles of English common law are the basis for law in many English-speaking countries, including the United States.
(Great Charter) Document drawn up by English nobles and reluctantly approved by King John that guaranteed certain basic political rights. The nobles wanted to safeguard their own feudal rights and limit the king's powers. This is one of the most celebrated documents in English history.
Legislative group; created in 1295, by King Edward. He summoned two burgesses from every borough and two knights from every county.
An undistinguished duke from the middle of France who succeeded Louis the Sluggard the last member of the Carolingian family. He ruled only a small territory, but at its heart was Paris, France.
One of the most powerful Capetians, called Philip Augustus, who ruled from 1180 to 1223. Philip became king at age 15, he set out to weaken the power of the English kings in France. Philip was crafty, unprincipled, and willing to do whatever was necessary to achieve his goals.
The meeting of the First Estate, the Church leaders; Second Estate, the great lords; and the Third Estate, the commoners, wealthy landholders or merchants; all of these were invited by Philip to participate in the council. The Estates-General was the meeting of all three of the Estates at once.
Became the new capital city of the Pope when Clement V moved it after being elected pope.
The Great Split in the Church. After this the Italian Pope lives in Rome and the French Pope lived in Avignon.
Englishman who preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church and was offended by the worldliness and wealth many of the clergy displayed.
A professor in Bohemia who was influenced by Wycliffe's writings and taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope.
A deadly disease that killed approximately one-third of the European population.
Hundred Years' War
The war between England and France that battled with each other on French soil for over a century. The war went from 1337 to 1453 and the victory of the battle went to the French when they rallied against the English and drove them out of France, except for the port city of Calais.
Joan of Arc
A teenage French peasant girl who, 1429, felt moved by God to rescue France from its English conquerors. When she was only 13 she had visions from God telling her to drive the English from France and give the French crown to France's true king, Charles VII. She later became a saint.
The descendants of a common ancestor. Besides the living members, lineage included past generation (spirits of ancestors) and future generations (children not yet born). Within a lineage, members feel strong loyalties to one another.
Many African groups developed systems of governing based on lineage. The lineage groups took place of rulers. Did not have a centralized system of power.
Members of the lineage who trace their ancestors through their fathers.
Members of the lineage who trace their ancestors through their mothers.
The part of North Africa that is today the Mediterranean coast of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco.
Religious brotherhood founded by a Muslim scholar from Morocco named Abd Allah Ibn Yasin.
group of Berber Muslim reformers who seized power from the Almoravids.
A kingdom that by the 700s its rulers were growing rich by taxing the goods traders carried through their territory.
A kingdom that emerged by 1235. Its founders were Mande-speaking people, who lived south of Ghana. The Mali's wealth was built on gold just like that of Ghana's.
The first great ruler of the Mali people. He came to power by crushing a cruel, unpopular leader.
Sundiata's grandnephew who ruled from about 1312 to 1332. He built mosques to support Muslim holy men's preaching.
A native of Tangier in North Africa, he had traveled for 27 years, visiting most of the countries in the Islamic world.
The people who were in eastern Africa; they built up an army and extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger River near Gao. Gao was the capital of their empire.
African group named after the language they spoke; they emerged between 1000 to 1200 in the savanna area east of Mali and Songhai in what is today Nigeria.
The people, like the Hausa, all spoke a common language. They came from small city-states and were united under strong leaders.
that lay near the delta of the Niger River, to the south and west of Ife.
language created when Arabic blended with the Bantu language. This was a result of the increase in trade with African cities with Muslim Arab and Persian traders.
African city established by the Shona people which grew into an empire built on the gold trade.
Empire named after the conquered people called Mutota but came to be a term of respect because of the misunderstandings of the Portuguese.
An elaborate ceremony in which families displayed their rank and prosperity by giving food, drink, and gifts to the community.
A people who lived in Four Corners region that is today Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. They built impressive cliff dwellings such as Mesa Verde.
Apartment-style compounds made of stone and adobe, or sun-baked clay. Anasazis were living in large villages with pueblos around 900 A.D.
The last Mound Builder culture that lasted from around 800 A.D. until the arrival of Europeans in the 1500s. They created thriving villages based on farming and trade.
A group of tribes speaking related languages living in the eastern Great Lakes region.
Refers to a natural object with which an individual, clan, or group identifies itself.
Spectacular Mayan city that was a major center in northern Guatemala.
Hieroglyphic symbols that were used in Mayan writing which consisted of about 800 different symbols.
Glyphs that were carved in stone or recored in a bark-paper book. The Maya used their writing system to record important historical events.
The most famous of the Mayan books that recounts the Highland Mayan's version of the story of creation.
A black or green volcanic glass found in the Valley of Mexico and used to make razor-sharp weapons.
Feathered Serpent worshiped by the Toltec people after their leader, Topiltzin, tried to change their religion.
The Aztecs joined together with two other city-states - the Texcoco and the Tlacopan. This alliance became the leading power in the Valley of Mexico.
An Aztec ruler crowned in 1502; under his reign the Aztec empire began to weaken. This began because he started to become paranoid and obsessed with the supernatural.
Powerful and ambitious rule who took the throne in 1438. Under his leadership, the Inca conquered all of Peru and then moved into neighboring lands.
Extended family group that undertook tasks too big for a single family. Some of these tasks included building irrigation canals or cutting agricultural terraces into steep hillsides.
A labor tribute required of all able-bodied citizens to work for the state a certain number of days every year.
An accounting device created by the Inca; it was a set of knotted strings that could be used to record data.
A movement that started in Italy that caused an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought that lasted approximately from 1300 to 1600. The term means rebirth, and in this context, it refers to the revival of art and learning.
An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements.
Worldly rather than spiritually; concerned with the here and now.
Church leaders during the Renaissance beautified Rome and other cities by spending huge amounts of money for art. Patrons supported the artists financially. Renaissance merchants and wealthy families also were patrons of the arts.
An art technique which shows three dimensions on a flat surface.
The language of the people. Dante wrote in his native language which was Italian.
Means "no place" in Greek; it is an ideal society about a place with little greed or corruption.
Famous writer and playwright during the Renaissance and the Elizabethan Age; thought to be the greatest playwright ever.
A craftsman from Mainz, Germany, who developed a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way.
A pardon; it released a sinner from performing the
penalty that a priest imposed for sins.
A movement for religious reform. It led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope's authority.
A religious separate group that was made up of Martin Luther and his followers.
Princes who supported Luther signed a protest
against that agreement. These protesting princes came to be known as Protestants. Applied to Christians who belonged to non-
Peace of Augsburg
Treaty made by Charles V that decided that each ruler would decide the religion of his state.
Set aside; Henry's marriage
if proof could be found that it had never been legal in the first place.
Church of England; church made by Elizabeth I to unify the people of England, Queen Elizabeth I was its head.
Calvinist belief that God has known since the beginning of time who
will be saved
A religion based on the teachings of John Calvin.
A government controlled by religious leaders
Followers of John Knox who believed that each community church was governed by a group of layman called elders or presbyters.
"baptize again"; They believed that persons who had been baptized as children should be rebaptized again as adults.
The Counter Reformation; Important
leaders in this movement were reformers, such as Ignatius of Loyola, who founded new religious orders, and two popes—Paul III and Paul IV— who took actions to reform and renew the Church from within.
Members of the Society of Jesus. They focus on three main activities: founding superb schools in Europe, converting non-Christians into Catholics, and to stop the spread of Protestantism.
Council of Trent
From 1545 to 1563, Council of Catholic bishops and cardinals. They agreed on several doctrines:
The Church's interpretation of the Bible was final. Any Christian who
substituted his or her own interpretation was a heretic.
• Christians needed faith and good works for salvation. They were not saved by
faith alone, as Luther argued.
• The Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding
• Indulgences were valid expressions of faith. But the false selling of
indulgences was banned.