When peakers attempt to persuade w/out adequate evidence or use arguements that are irrelevant or inappropriate, they are using:
The term used by Aristotle to describe appeals to human emotion is:
A three-part way of developing an arguement with a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion is known as:
As United Nations representatives, Shanthy and Miles were determined to establish an early warning system for tsunamic threats. They had personally seen the devastation to their homeland of Sri Lanka in December 2004, and knew they had the power to affect change. In their speeches before the UN, they showed the tsunami had struck. In the end, they were able to persuade the audience to consider the proposal for an early warning system. Which tip did they follow for using emotions to persuade?
They used emotion-arousing images to trigger a response.
The audience's perceptionof a speaker's competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism is termed
The type of credibility established by giving carefull thought to your appearance, established eye contact, and having your credentials as well as accuretly presented to the audience is known as:
When Ramone spoke about th eneed for regular health check-ups, he was so knowledgeable, so sincere, and so energetic in his delivery that everyone responded quite positively to his speech. What aspect of good persuasive delivery did Ramone demonstate?
Whis is the term for reasoning that uses specific instances of examples to reach a general, probable conclusion?
What is Aristotle's term for speaker credibility?
The factor in a speaker's credibility that refers to his or her being perceived as energetic is known as:
The type of reasoning in which one thing, person, or process is compared to another to predict how something will perform or respond is:
A process of reasoning from a general statement or principle to reach a specific, certain conclusion is known as:
Reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid, accurate, or effective is a:
An emotional appeal that reaches the audience through shared beliefs based on cultural heritage or faith is known as:
In a speech to the neighborhood watch group, Mr. Simmons made the following statement: "If you see someone running down the sidewalk in our neighborhood and you don't recognize that person, you can assume that person has committed some type of crime. You must act immediately. Don't hestitate for a second. Call 911. Some members of the audience recognized this statement as an example of:
a causal fallacy
In an introduction to a persuasive speech, Fran said: "Ther was a time when I thought I would never have a job, a decent life, a boyfriend, or any pleasure in life. But, after working as an intern at Channel 3, I know what i really want to do with my life and that gives me great satisfaction. I encourage you all to become interns, so that you, too, can discover that there is something in life that inspires passion in you...that you're willing to work for...to work hard for... to be successfull...to be happy." What type of message did this speaker effectively use in this introduction?
an appeal to emotion
During her speech on creating a healthier environment, Maureen stated that more laws shoudl be in effect to protect the environment becaues her town had a littering problem. Maureen was demonstrating which fallacy?
The causal fallacy is reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid or correct: T/F
The either/or fallacy is the oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only two outcomes or possibilities: T/F
The red herring fallacy is usesd when someone attacks an issue by using irrelevent facts or arguments as distractions: T/F
Knowing what your listeners value or need and appealing to those values or needs is know in persuasion as:
Tiphani, in her persuasive speech, says the following, "so by using these simple steps, you will save time, money, and energy." What form of persuasive appeal is this?
an appeal to postivie motivation
Our likes and dislikes are represented by our
You want to do a speech on the importance of yoga and as exercise routine, but don't want to come across as though you were scolding the audience for not being more active. You simply want to uplift them, to make them feel good about their own potential, and to show them the health benefits of activity. If you do this, what persuasive strategy will you be using?
Persuasion is the process of
changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, and values
In her persuasive speech, Martha spoke about the possibility of dirty nuclear weapons being used against the US by Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. She challenged them to monitor senate hearings on the problem and to get involved by writing or emailing their legislators. What form of motivation did Martha successfully employ in her speech?
negative motivation, based on a fear appeal
The personal need to achive our highest potential is:
When a proposition is a persuasive speech focuses on having the listener judge work or importance of something, it is:
a proposition of value
The process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitues, beliefs, values, or behavior is:
Something that is reinforced by past experiences and evidence is:
Matt is listening to a persuasive speech on assisted suicide, He begins to feel uncomfortable but then decides the speaker didn't know what she was talking about. Matt is using which dissonance coping stradegy?
He is discrediting the source.
Lawanda just didn't want to change her stance on capital punishment , but Jack's argument did make her think twice about her position. However, instead of being persuaded, Lawanda dismissed the arguments by deeming Jack's facts unreliable. How has Lawanda responded to her own congnitive dissonance in theory?
by attacking the credibility of his sources
Although Betsy lives in a state where carrying concealed weapons is legal, she wants to persuade her listeners that stricter handgun legislation should be passed. According to Maslow, which need is she addressing?
When a proposition in a persuasive speech focuses on changing a procedure, a law, or a behavior, it is:
a proposition of policy
In a persuasive speech, the speaker explicitly asks the audience to make a choice, rather than just informing them of the options: T/F
Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior: T/F
Aristotle believed that in order to be credible, a public speaker should be ethical, possess good character, have common sense, and be concerned for the well-being of the audience: T/F
To elaborate means to think about the information, ideas, and issues related to the content of the speech you're listening to: T/F
Basic physiological needs have to satisfied before we can be motivated to respond to higher-level needs: T/F
We can't be motivated by several needs at the same time: T/F
What should a speech conclusion do?
summarize the main points
Reemphasizing the central idea in a memorable way, moving an audience to action, and providing closure are all functions of:
the speech conclusion
In her introduction to her speech about eating disorders, Sheila told the story of a friend who almost died of anorexia. In her conclusion, she reminded her audience of what her friend went through and explained that her friend was currently doing well in her battle against the disease. Was this an appropriate strategy for her speech?
Yes; this is a concluding strategy known as an introduction
Terms like "finally, in conclusion," and "in closing," are examples of:
devices that provide closure for a speech
In his speech about registering to vote, Dan explains the new legislation that allows voter registration to coincide with driver's license renewal. But he concludes the speech by stating that any person who is not registered should be by several locations that he has listed on the chalkboard and register in time for the next election. Finally, Dan reinterates, Everyone please register to vote; it's your right, and your duty as a citizen. What aspect of effectice conclusions has Dan utilized?
an appeal to action of the part of the audience
Wha is the purpose of the techniques when a speaker makes reference introduction in the conclusion?
providing a sense of closure
When Gloria said, "So we must all do something to end domestic violance; we must all be prepared to confront this issue in our own neighborhoods and homes; so that we be ome part of the solution, not part of the problem," you recognize this as:
a statement to motivate the audience to respond
An effective conclusion will summarize the speech and provide closure: T/F
In the speech just before Jerome's, the speaker covered some of the same material that Jerome wa sgoing to use in his speech on golf. Instead of letting this throw him, Jerome acknowledged the overlap in his introduction. Was this a wise thing according to your text?
Yes; he used an attention-getting, credibility-building device known as a reference to a preceding speech
The statement, "This is a great day, because so many people frm so many walks of live have gathered in this place to celebrate the life of Martin Luther King Jr." is an example of an introductionary device called:
a reference to the occasion
the attitude listeners hold toward a speaker
In developing her speech on scuba diving, Rachael is tryign to decide whether or not to tell the audience in her introduction that she has been a diver since she was a Freshman in high school. She wonders if this will help or hurt her credibility. What textbook advice applies here?
she should give a brief, credibility;building explanation about her experience with the topic.
This signpost may enumerate the ideas and points that will be presented in the speech. This signpost is known as:
Dana opens her speech against abortion by putting up a transparency that shows graphic image of an aborted fetus. Is this an effective opening?
No; this type of graphic material may disgust and repel the audience.
Janet's introduction contained the following remarks: How may of you know someone who has tried to quit smoking, successfully or unsuccessfully. Have any of the smokers in this audience tried to quit? Well, if you have tried to quit multiple times. A few months ago I tried to quit, for the umpteenth time, bu this time I made it. I would like to tell you exactly how I made it." Which of the following statements is accurate about this introduction?
she has successfully combined introductory devices of questions to the audience, statistical information, and a personal reference.
An anecdote is:
a brief entertaining story or illustration
It is important in an introduction to buikd trust with the audience, to have them beliee you and like you. This is known as speaker:
Which of the following does the text state is an inherently interesting type of supporting material?
Thanking someone for inviting you to speak, as part of your introduction, is termed:
a personal reference
The introduction is more often the last part of the speech you develop: T/F
Organizing the body of your speech should follow the crafting of the introduction: T/F
You can help establish listening listening motivation by showing the members of you audience how the topic affects them directly: T/F
Perhaps the most obvious purpose of an introduction is to introduce the subjects of the speech: T/F
A credibility statement is an organizational strategy called a signpost: T/F
An illustration or anecdote is the most ingerently interesting type of supporting material: T/F
Humor, handled well, can be a wonderful attention getter: T/F
A rhetorical question is intended to provoke thought, rather than elicit an answer: T/F
Referring to a recent event decreases you credibility by showing that you are only knowledgeable about current events: T/F
If your audience knows about an action or program that has been implemented but does not know the reason for its implementaion, you might select a chronological pattern of organization: T/F
You should not arrange your main ideas according to one pattern adn your sub-points according to another: T/F
According to the principle of recency, the point discussed first is the one audiences will remember best: T/F
Three types of signposts can serve as glue to hold your speech together; transitions, previews, and summaries: T/F
chronological organization involves either forward or backward progression: T/F
An internal preview is a statement in the body of a speech that introduces and outlines ideas that will be developed as the speech progresses: T/F
Historical speeches and how-to speeched are the two kinds of speeches usually organized chronologically: T/F
Hard evidence includes facvtual examples and statistics: T/F
The method a speaker uses to arrange her or his main ideas is termed:
the organizational pattern
Organizing speech ideas according to direction and loocation is:
a spatial pattern
Bianca began her speech with a vivid description of teh typical waiting area in an emergency room of a public hospital. She described the different areas of the emergency room and where each part of the emergency room was located in relastionship to other parts. What organizational pattern can you detect in Bianca's speech?
A speech topic that presents an issue that needs resolvng can effectively be organized as:
After speakers have organized their main points, what is the next step?
dividing main points into sub-points
When you present the most important or convicing idea first in your speech, you are using the principle of?
Paul describes first how hunger is a word-wide problem; he then explains that there is a hunger problem in America; then he describes a family suffering in his hown town. What aspect of supporting material organization is Paul emplying here?
the specificity principle
For you persuasive speech supporting assisted suicide, you decide to first provide a definition of the term and talk generally about the current status of the problem. Then you will bring up individual incidents in which assisted suicides have prevented needless suffering in the victim, while the family member who assisted has been imprisoned, Which strategy of support material organization i sthis plan reflecting?
In his speech on varying explanations of how the earth came into existence, Eduardo begins with opinions, moves to inferences, and uses scientific facts in support of his last point. What principle of supporting material organization is Eduardo reflecting in his speech?
"soft" to "hard" evidence
Mandy's "save the whales" speech was very effective because she started off with stories about whales, then she moved into facts, statistics, and sources, which principle of support material organization did Mandy effectively use in her speech?
"soft" to "hard" evidence
Words and phrases, such as "in addition, in other words," and "therefore," are examples of:
A planned pause in speech may be used as:
a nonverbal signpost
Most speeches about ideas are organized topically: T/F
Pedagogy is the are and science of teaching adults: T/F
The stories you tell, the examples you use, and the statistics you cite will make sense to listeners if only you have an understanding of the words you speak: T/F
One day after hearing a presentation, most audience members will remember only about helf of what they were told: T/F
May speeces about procedures include visual aides: T/F
Speeches about ideas are usually less abstract than other types of speeches: T/F
Presenting information means that communication has occurred: T/F
Phyllis presented an informative speech on how to fix a flat tire. What type of informative speech was this?
a speech about a procedure
In a speech with the genral purpose "to inform," a speaker's goal is:
to teach others new information
When trying to help the audience make sense of the information being presented the goal of the speaker should be to:
enhance understanding, gain interest, and ensure that the audience will remember what was said
Gus was asked to present information on the topic of art appreciation. This topic can be rather vague and subjective in nature; different pieces of are can be described in a multitude of ways. However, Gus found a way of clearly defining terms and concepts so the audience would have a common point of reference. For Gus, the primary goal of his informative speech would be:
to enhance understanding
An informative speech that discusses how something works, or describes a process with a particular outcome, is a speech about:
What kind of speech focuses on a process or how something works?
a speech about a procedure
An informative speech about an event typically follows this pattern of organization
Roberto gave an informative speech about the life adn artistic accomplishments of Andy Warhol. What type of informative speech did Roberto deliver?
a speech about people
When previewing your speech on Islam, you say, you say, "The best way to understand Islam is to look at some of the beliefs and practices of this religion." You will be giving a speech about:
One way in which adults learn differently from children is that adults:
like to be actively involved in the learning process
In her speech about small pox, Jessica previewed her ideas in the introduction summarized key points throughout the speech, and provided a visual outline on an overhead. What public speaking principle did Jessica apply?
she used the principle of speaking with clarity
The are and science of teaching adults to learn is?
David decided to present his informative speech on "How to Give the Heimlich Maneuver." He opened by recounting a story of how he had saved his younger brother's life when he was choking on gum he had accidentally swallowed. Which of the goals of informative speaking was David targeting with his statement?
motivative the audience to listen through telling a story
An after-dinner speech is an entertaining speech, usually delivered in conjunction with a mealtime meeting or banquet: T/F
A toast is a brief salute to a momentous occasion: T/F
A commemorative address is a speech of tribute delivered when someone has died: T/F
A public relations speech is designed to inform public, to strengthen alliances with them, but never to recommend poicy: T/F
Epideictic is another name for a ceremonial speech: T/F
A keynote speech is a speech that sets the theme and tone for a meeting or conference: T/F
A eulogy is a speech delivered during ceremonies held in memory of some past event and/or the person or persons involved: T/F
An acceptance speech is a speech of thanks for an award, nomination, or other honor: T/F
These speeches are designed to inform the public, strengthen alliances with them and possibly recommend policy to those outside the work environment
a public relations speech
When offering a brief salute to a special occasion or person, you are giving
The special-occasion speech, given at or near the beginning of a meeting or a conference, which sets the theme and tone is what kind of speech?
a keynote address
What two criteria are most important when making a speech of introduction?
be brief and accurate
When you make a speech placing someone's name in nomination for an office award, what should you be sure to mention?
the nominee's qualifications for this award or office
Martina is concerned about her introdfuctory speech for guest speaker adn her banquet., According to your textbood, what should Martina keep in mind?
she should introduce the topic adn the speaker, briefly and accuretly
Renton has been asked to present his colleague, Rebecca, with the "Journalist of the Year" award. What is important for hin to remember to say in this speech?
to briefly refer to the occasion and mention the significance of the award
At his best friend's wedding, Daniel gave a long toast in which he told funny stories about high school days, past romances-including broken hearts, and his first impressions of his best friend's new bride. Was this appropriate, according to your textbook advice on giving a toast?
no; toasts should be brief and appropriate for the audience
Marianne was so blown away by the announcement that she had won an award adn she felt numb on her way to accept it. When she got to the microphone, she began to ramble and then thank everyone she could think of for voting for her and supporting her. The speech ran seveal minutes long and had no organization. Is this appropriate for an acceptance speech?
no; impromtu acceptance speeches should be brief, gracious, and as organized as possible
At Donald's funeral, Patrick was asked to give the eulogy. In the eulogy, Patrick mentioned Donald's accomplishments in art, his loving devotion to his family and how Donald got people to smile with the short stories or jokes he told. He always had people laughing. At the close of the eulogy, Patrick encourages eveyone to keep Donald in their memories and close to their heart. What guidelines did Patrick follow in preparing this eulogy?
remember the achievements of the person, including personal recollections, and encourage those assembled to move beyond their sorrow.
A phrase in which the initial sounds of words are switched is known as:
A speech of introduction is a speech that provides information about another speaker: T/F
The type of speech that will benefit from the use of presentation aids is:
any type of speech
Kayt had carefully planned presentation aids for her speech on "Quilting." She thoroughly demonstrated how to sew together the squares by hand, which required her to concentrate on the quilt. What guideline for using presentation aids did Kayt violate?
She focused on the presentation aid instead of the audience
Joe is a member os FFA, so for his demonstration speech he wanted toshow his audience the proper way to groom and care for his prize-winning holstein cattle. Instead of bringing a holstein to class, what does the textbook suggest Joe should do in this demonstration speech?
he should use a three-demensional model of a holstein along with the items he uses to groom the cattle when the actual object is too large to be easily used as a presentation aid for a speech.
How can a photograph best be used as a presentation aid?
incorporate it into a computer program or PowerPoint
Rashan thought that he wuold be dramatic and impress his public speaking class with his speech on dog training. He decided to bring in his german shepard to illustrate the points and techniques of obedience. But during the speech, he noticed that the audience's attention was on his dog, rather than on him as the speaker. What guideline did Rashan ignore, with regard to using presentation aids?
use animals with caution as presentation aids.
Elaine taped pictures of her Aruba vacation all around the room as presentation aids for her speech. She never referred to them, but simply created an atomosphere for her presentation. Was this appropriate?
no, because she should have explained the presentation aids, not just show them.
The presentational aid that is prepared ahead of time, can be marked on while speaking, and allows the speaker to maintain eye contact while speaking is:
Although computer-generated PowerPoint presentations are gaining popularity as visual aids, overhead projections remain popular for speakers. According to the text why does this hold true?
speakers are able to maintain eye contact with the audience while also being able to see the visual
Regina's demonstration speech topic was "Three Ways to Improved Photography" in this speech, Reginal showed a 35 mm camera, used a chart with an enlarged diagram of the main components of the camera, and then showed 4x6 photos-some good and some with errors-to the audience. Which of the following statements best summarizes Regina's use of presentation aids in his speech?
she should have enlarged the photographs, so the audience could clearly see them
When using a presentational aid, there is always the possibility of "something going wrong" while you are speaking. If someone does go wrong, what should you do as a speaker?
have back up supplies and a back up plan in case your best laid plans go away
Visual aids can help communicate your ideas with greater calrity and implact than words alone: T/F
A presentation aid is any object that reinforces your point verbally so that your audience can understand it: T/F
From the following options, the best reason to use presentation aids is:
they help your audience understand and remember
It is usually better to use a chalkboard or whiteboard than to use a chart, graph, or drawing: T/F
Presentation aids help listeners organize ideas: T/F
When considering the use of fonts in presentation aids, you should know that a serif font
has no added lines at the top and bottom
The best reason that presentation aids enhance an audience's memory of the speech is that
audience members will better understand and remember the speech because of visual reinforcement
A presentation aid which is a representation of statistical data is
Which of the following is an example of a two-dimensional presentation aid?
a graph of population growth
Charts summarize and present a great deal of information in a small amount of space: T/F
Presenation aids help gain and maintain attention: T/F
Almost any speech can benefit from presentation aids: T/F
A presentation aid that displayes information in the form of words, numbers, or images is:
Of the five senses, presentationak aids are effective b/c we depend on ____ more than any other sense
PowerPoint and the multitude of other presentation aids that speakers may use--especially visual aids--are more powerful tools: T/F
Sandy decided that she needed almost of all of her material on her delivery outline b/c she had so many statistics and direct quotations. She liked to use not cards so taht she could move from the podium but was distressed t find she had fifteen note cards. When delivering the speech, she dropped her cards and couldn't find her place, What does your text suggest to help a speaker avoid a situation like this?
Don't have too any cards, if possible; always number them
What is one of the features of the standard outline form?
use at least two subdivisions, is any, for each point
Marissa's speaking notes were filled with drawings, words, and symbols. Is this a fine method for creating speaking notes?
yes; it is fine to prepare your notes in any form as long as it makes sense to you
When should a speader edit their speech?
as the speaker is practicing from the preparation outline and discovers there is too much information
Before presenting you speech in front of a full audience you practice and discover that your speech is too long. What should be done?
edit the speech by reviewing the specific purpose-you may be trying to accomplish too much in the speech
Susanne wrote her preparation outline but decided that it contained too much material. She went back to her speech and thought about who her audience would be. She then cut two of her main points out of her speech. Was this a good way to minimize her information?
yes; she was considering her audience. she removed two points b/c she decided her audience did not need to know this information
the delivery outline is
much shorter than the preparation outline and tailored to the individual speaker
What is wrong in the following segment of a speech preparation outline?
I. Romantic relastionships rarely develop like they are portrayed in Hollywood movies.
A. Many times, movies show "opposites who attract," when in real life "similars" attract.
B. Movcies tend to over-dramatize conflicts, when actually subtle conflicts are more the norm.
II. Successful romantic relationships take time and effort.
the outline does not use the standard outline indentation
Conventional use of numbered and lettered headng and subheadings to indicate the relationships among parts of the speech is known as a
standard outline form
Why would the following be an example of an incomplete standard outlining form?
I. Current local efferts to recycle common household products are increasingly successful.
A. More community involvement
1. Each day more types of items are added to the list of what can be recycled
2. People are becoming more aware of local recycling centers..
the subpoint is not written out as a complete sentence
What aspect of standard outlining procedure is violated in the following example?
I. The Rocky Mountains were formed in stages, over a long period of time
1. Mountains are affected by geographic and environmental events.
2. Mountains provide a sort of "blueprint" as to what has occured in a certain region.
II. Rockies are younger mountains than the Swiss Alps
George shows Laura his delivery outline for an upcoming speech. She criticizes George for including supporting anmterial and signposts in his outline. Who is right?
he is right because supporting material and signposts should be included in a delivery outline
A delivery outline is a detailed outline of a speech that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material: T/F
Mapping is a technique that uses geometric shapes to indicate the logical relationship between main idea, subpoints, and supporting material: T/F
Standard outline form lets you see at a glance relationship among various ideas, subpoints, and supporting material in your speech: T/F
When using standard outline form, numbered and lettered headings and subheadings are arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationship among parts of speech: T/F
If you have more than five subpoints, you may want to place some of them under another point: T/F
The specific purpose should be worked into the outline itself: T/F
If you are using a word processing program, you may find it easier to format you outline with the Autoformat feature turned on: T/F
One of the hardest error for audiences to forgive is for speaking too short: T/F
President George W. Bush, in eulogizing President Ronald Reagan, stated when Ronald Reagan was a child he "knew the world as a place of open plains, quite streets, gas-lit rooms, and carriages drawn by horse." Which language device was President Bush using when he said "carriages drawn by horses?"
he was using inversion
To "use appropriate language" in a speech implies
avoiding language that will offend people of different cultures, races, sexes, or other subgroups
What is wrong with the following statement in a speech? "If you believe we should have stiffer penalties for juvenile offenders, then write you congressman."
the language is sexist, as the term "congressman" implies only men serve in the legistlature
Words that are particular to a profession are known as
A variety of English that includes words or phrases used by a specific ethnic group is called
Statements such as, "money talks, that's my car; isn't she beautiful," and "the wind moaned adn screeched," are all examples of
When speakers substitutes the word "flight attendent" for "stewardess" or "steward" they are using language that is
The most important difference between oral language and written language is
oral language allows for interaction with the audience
A word that is specific adn appeals to at least one of our five senses is known as
a concrete word
An alphabetical list of words adn their synonyms is a
When a speaker compares an abstract idea to a concrete image, she or he is using the figure of speech known as
Oral communication often uses a rather formal language and struture: T/F
Memorized speeches sound as if they were written because the words and phrases are longer, more complex, and more formal than those used by most speakers: T/F
Spoken communication is usually more formal and characterized by longer words and phrases than written communication: T/F
Specific words are concrete words, which appeal to one of our five senses: T/F
If you want to give your audience an accurate depiction of your message, use concrete words: T/F
The best language is often the simplest: T/F
To communicate successfully with the diverse group of listeners who comprise your audience, make sure your language is understandable, appropriate, and unbiased: T/F
A regionalism is a word or phrase used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country: T/F
One wy to make your message memorable is to use figures of speech to create arresting images: T/F