Federally owned acreage granted to the railroad companies in order to encourage the building of rail lines.
Union Pacific Railroad
The original transcontinental railroad, commissioned by Congress, which is built its rail line west from Omaha.
Central Pacific Railroad
The California-based railroad company, headed by Leland Stanford, that employed Chinese laborers in building lines across the mountains.
Great Northern Railroad
The northernmost of the transcontinental railroad lines, organized by economically wise and public-spirited industrialist James J. Hill.
Dishonest device by which railroad promoters artificially inflated the price of their stocks and bonds.
Supreme Court case of 1886 that prevented states from regulating railroads or other forms of interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
Federal agency, originally intended to regulate railroads, that was often used by rail companies to stablilize the industry and prevent ruinous competition.
Late-nineteenth-century invention that revolutionized communication and created a large new industry that relied heavily on female workers.
First of the great industrial trusts, organized through a principle of "horizontal integration" that ruthlessly incorporated or destroyed competitors.
United States Steel Corporation (USSC)
The first billion-dollar American corporation, organized when J.P. Morgan bought out Andrew Carnegie.
Term that identified southern promoters' belief in a technologically advanced industrial South.
Colored National Labor Union (CNLU)
Black labor organization that briefly flourished in the late 1860s.
Knights of Labor
Secret, ritualistic labor organization that enrolled many skilled and unskilled workers but collapses suddenly after the Haymarket Square bombing.
Skilled labor organizations, such as those of carpenters and printers, that were most successful in conducting strikes and raising wages.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
The conservative labor group that successfully organized a minority of American workers but left out.
Former California governor and organizer of the Central Pacific Railroad.
Pro-business clergyman whose "Acres of Diamonds" speeches criticized the poor.
James J. Hill
Public-spirited railroad builder who assisted farmers in the northern areas served by his rail lines.
Aggressive eastern railroad builder and consolidator who scorned the law as an obstacle to his enterprise.
Charles Dana Gibson
Magazine illustrator who created a romantic image of the new, independent woman.
Alexander Graham Bell
Former teacher of the deaf whose invention created an entire new industry.
Inventive genius of industrialization who worked on devices such as the electric light, the phonograph, and the motion picture.
Scottish immigrant who organized a vast new industry on the principle of "vertical integration".
John D. Rockefeller
Aggressive energy-industry monopolist who used tough means to build a trust based on "horizontal integration".
J. Pierpont Morgan
The only businessperson in America wealthy enough to buy out Andrew Carnegie and organize the United States Steel Corporation.
Southern newspaper editor who tirelessly promoted industrialization as the salvation of the economically backward South.
Terence V. Powderly
Eloquent leader of a secretive labor organization that made substantial gains in the 1880s before it suddenly collapsed.
William Graham Sumner
Intellectual defender of laissez-faire capitalism who argued that the wealthy owed "nothing" to the poor.
John P. Altgeld
Illinois governor who pardoned the Haymarket anarchists.
Organizer of a conservative craft-union group and advocate of "more" wages for skilled workers.