river valley civilizations
civilization situated next to a river that provided a water supply for mainly agriculture
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority
Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers in the Fertile Crescent; Mesopotamia
a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties.
Law of retribution "an eye for an eye"
A group of ancient city-states in southern Mesopotamia; the earliest civilization in Mesopotamia.
warrior who found the Akkadian Empire and so became the first ruler of an empire in the Fertile Crescent
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
River that sustained Egypt and its predictable floods meant good agriculture
the belief in government by divine guidance
the Egyptian concept of truth, justice, and cosmic order, represented by a goddess, often portrayed with a feather upon her head
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. BUILT THE PYRAMIDS: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
rainy season in southern Asia when the southwestern monsoon blows, bringing heavy rains
River in China at a high plateau in Tibet. Loess soil carried by the river, gave river it's name, very fertile. "China's sorrow" when it had extensive flooding.
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
a time when the China was in constant war between its city states, occurring right after the fall Zhou dynasty and not ending until the formation of the Qin dynasty
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
social accord reached by Confucian principles
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit
cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated
role of family
The family teaches children to respect their parents. Which in turn teaches respect toward the ruler. The country acts as a family;Confucianism
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
First major urban civilization in South America. Capital is de Huantar, was located in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Has 2 distinct ecological zones, the Peruvian Costal Plain and the Andean Foothills.
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
Bronze age (semi-cosmopolitan)
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
Dark age (not cosmopolitan)
A time of bad economic times and no cultural or intellectual advances.
Iron age (super cosmopolitan)
the period following the Bronze Age; characterized by rapid spread of iron tools and weapons; Hittites
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. Had great wealth and was a center of trade and power.
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals particularly iron and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria
A city state in northern Mesopotaimia, the ruler, Sargon, conquered all the city-states of Mesopotamia and formed the world's first empire.
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
Book of the Dead
Collection of religious spells which were thought to be helpful to the deceased in the afterlife.
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which they ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes. (means foreigner)
the period of ancient egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the hyksos rulers, lasting from about1570 to 1075 B.C. Egypt reached the height of its power and wealth
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV)
New kingdom ruler of Egypt who rejected the old gods and replaced them with sun worship (died in 1358 BC); monotheism
king of Egypt between 1304 and 1237 BC who built many monuments; One of egypt's greatest kings
Prosperous civilization on the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. They engaged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks. (p. 73)
On the Greek mainland, the they developed c. 1900 BC; Built huge fleet of ships to capture trade routes and established colonies; Rivals of the Minoans; Adopted Minoans writing and building ideas and became more powerful by conquering the Minoans in 1450 BC.
the modern name for the script, composed of signs and pictures, in which Mycenaean Greeks kept records on tablets of clay.
An empire extending from western Iran to Syria-Palestine, conquered by the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia between the tenth and seventh centuries B.C.E. They used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects. (93)
king of Assyria who built a magnificent palace and library at Nineveh (668-627 BC); Library of _______
an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea
Sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
rose at the time of the Neo-Assyrian decline (650 - 600 BC); easily took over Assyrian territories; policy was to build up Babylon, unlike the Assyrians who had sought to create a large empire by scattering/destroying their conquered people
The governor of a province in the ancient Persian Empire
Cyrus (the Great)
king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire (circa 600-529 BC), A remarkable leader who managed to reunite he Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world
Reigned 530-521 BC. Son of Cyrus the Great, conquered Egypt after his father died. Completely ignored the policy of toleration set by father (Cyrus), incompetent, overextended the empire into Egypt
king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire (circa 600-529 BC)
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster
Government that includes voting but does not allow everyone to vote (in 18th century generally only white, land-owning males could vote)
a political system governed by a few people
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban; cosmopolitan
the ancient Greek known as the father of history
Battles between Persia and Greece that resulted in Persia being driven from Greece.
the largest city of Greece, rival to Sparta
an ancient Greek city famous for military prowess
a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method; Later sentenced to death for corrupting youth
ancient Athenian philosopher; taught Aristotle and student of Socrates; started a school
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Golden Age of Athens
a period of growth in ancient Athens in intellectual & and artistic learning, including drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, & science
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until spread of Islam.
an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
the ancient Roman state from 509 BC until Augustus assumed power in 27 BC
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
one of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic
of the hereditary aristocracy or ruling class of ancient Rome or medieval Europe
of the common people of ancient Rome
an empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern or Byzantine Empire
the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
Augustus Caesar (Octavian)
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Class of business people and landowners in ancient Rome who had wealth and power
the Roman peace; gareuteed by the power of the military
The process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces of the Roman Empire. Romans did not seek to Romanize them, but the subjugated people pursued it. (155)
artificial channel for conducting water over a distance
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
Dynasty that came to power in China in 221 B.C. under which the first true empire of China was created; brutal rule and used Legalism
Qin Shi Huangdi
First Emperor; only emperor of Qin Dynasty; legalist; abolished feudalism and established a bureaucracy; anti-religion; building of Great Wall and other public works; Legalism
strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit
imperial dynasty that ruled China from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy, dynasty that overthrew the Qin, established centrralized government, civil service system, Silk Road
seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. he is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under his reign, as well as the strong and centralized Confucian state he organized. created elite imperial academy that taught scholars/bureaucrats Confuscianism
the most powerful members of a society
The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit. (p. 185)
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties;
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
A river of South Asia that flows southeast from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha
religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism
(Hinduism) the name for the original social division of Vedic people into four groups (which are subdivided into thousands of jatis)
the highest of the four varnas: the priestly or sacerdotal category
a member of the royal or warrior Hindu caste
The third of the four classes of the caste system, made up of producers, such as farmers, merchants, and artisans
the lowest of the four varnas: the servants and workers of low status
belongs to lowest social and ritual class in India
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths
founder of Jainism
founder of Buddhism
practices self denial as spiritual discipline
Four Noble Truths
Life involves suffering, suffering originates in our desires, suffering stops if all desires stop, this state is achieved by the Eight Fold Path
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation
In Mahayana Buddhism, one who has attained enlightenment but holds back from final nirvana in order to help other sentient beings attain liberation
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing personal salvation through your own efforts
a Buddhist and Hindu and especially Jainist doctrine holding that all forms of life are sacred and urging the avoidance of violence
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
Indian Ocean Maritime Trade
sea trading system in the Indian Ocean that linked India, China, the Arabian Pennisula, and the coast of Africa
trans-sahara caravan routes
trade routes that linked the sub-Sahara to the Mediterenean. Trade was made possible by camels and gold and salt were mainly traded.
metal or leather loops that hang from a saddle and hold a rider's feet
Triangular sail on a short mast
Pack animals that made cross-Sahara caravans possible
a peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
city in western Arabia; the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and the center of Islamic religion.
a shrine with idols inside in Mecca; the holiest place in Mecca, and in all of Islam.
according to Muslims, who call hi Ibrahim, he was the the builder of the Ka'ba, and passed the covenant to Ishmael, the son of Hagar.
an Arab prophet and founder of Islam
belief in a single God
belief in multiple gods
declaring the creed, praying five times a day, fasting during Ramadan, paying alms, and pilgrimage to Mecca
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
the angel who delivered the prophecies to Muhammad
Muslim word for God
the world's seccond largest religion; translates to "submission to the will of God"
one who follows Islam; translates to "one who submits"
city in Western Arabia where Muhammad fled to in 622 to escape persecution
pilgrimage to Mecca
the community of all Muslims
office established in succession to Muhammad; also name for that empire
dar al Islam
translates to house of Islam, either places that have been under Islamic control, or places where Islam can be freely practiced.
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel during his life at Mecca and Medina.
first hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs that ruled from Damascus. Their power extended from Spain to India, and were overthrown b the Abbasid Caliphate
Muhammad's son in law, who fought Muhammad;s wife Aisha and two of Muhammad's companions at the battle of the Cammel. He was eventually killed by a supporter of Mu'awiya.
caliph who succeeded Muhammad. He was the father of Muhammad's favorite wife A'isha. Abu Bakr made the Five Pillars of Islam official, and collected the first written Quran.
Muslims believing that the caliph should be a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law, Ali.
the dominant community of Muslims that believe that the community should decide who should the caliph should be.
descendents of Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, who overthrew the Umayyad caliphate and ruled from Baghdad from 750 to 1258.
Islamic religious schools
The adoption and absorption by foreign people of Chinese language, customs and culture.
Empress Wu's grandson, became emperor of China, welcomed artisans to his court, Tang arts flourished: translucent pottery - "china"
A 1,100 mile waterway that linked the Yellow and Yangzi river completed during the Sui Empire.
The short-lived, militaristic dynasty that united China after the fall of the Han Dynasty.
Li Shimin (Tang Taizong)
The founder and second emperor of the Tang Empire
An empire that unified China and some of Central Asia that lasted from 618-907 founded by the Li family, Li Shimin especially.
nomadic Turkish people who were hired by the Tang to defeat the rebellion of An Lushan, later sacked Chang'an and Luoyang
A woman who married into the imperial family and declared herself the emperor, claiming to be a bodhisattva. Confucians blamed her for terrible torture and murder.
One of the Tang dynasty's foremost military commanders who mounted a rebellion and captured the capital at Chang'an and the secondary capital at Luoyang in 755.
An unhappy gentry who led the most devastating uprising against the tang empire.
Empire in central and southern China that rose after the Tang. Noted for their advances in technology, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.
Khitan people..related to Mongols..established on northeastern frontier of China
Formed by Jurchens, jurchens attacked Song and the song empire eventually fell too Mongols 1211-Khan attacked Jin.
A large flatboat used for long-distance commercial travel., A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel. Most advanced boat of its time.
A mixture of materials that was first used to keep away pests or evil spirits, later used to propel arrows and fire crackers.
The new approaches to Confucian texts that became the basic philosophy for the Song Empire.
(1130-1200) Most prominent of neo-Confucian scholars during the Song dynasty in China; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life and action
Also known as Chan Buddhism, it is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism that focuses on disciplined meditation.
A type where each individual character is cast on a separate piece of metal. It allowed books to be made more efficiently.
The credit system that would lead to dramatic inflation during the Song Empire.
The act of forcing the toes under the heel. Almost all woman in the Song Empire had their feet bound; it was a status symbol, and one way that men remained dominant.
Korean Kingdom that lasted from 918 to 1259.
An Aristocratic family that dominated the Japanese imperial court from the ninth to twelth centuries.
The first of Japan's decentralized military governments. It ruled from 1185 to 1333.
The Tale of Genji
Novel written by Lady Murasaki. Example of Woman having a cultural influence.
Quick-maturing rice originally from India that was sent to China as tribute from Vietnam.
A system used by the Tang where countries not under the direct control of the dominant country would pay taxes or tribute, acknowledging their superiority and receiving trading rights and alliances.
a Venetian traveler who wrote much about his voyage to Asia.
a fatal disease transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; can be spread through the air; most likely the reason behind the Black Death
Temujin; A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.
Describes the ruthless Mongol rule over the Slavs for about 200 years after the conquest of Chinggis Khan. The Mongols used existing Slavic princes as servants and tax collectors. Good princes were rewarded with heredity. Alexander Nevsky began the process of making the princes more powerful, and it was finished by Ivan III, who overthrew the Mongols and became Russia's first tzar
The most powerful khanate of its time founded by Gehghis Khan's grandson Batu. it was based in southern Russia, and mixed Turkic culture and Islamic culture;
founder of the Yuan Empire; conquered and ruled China
Empire created in China and Sibera by Khubilai Khan
A secondary khan based in Persia founded by Hulehu, a grandson of Genghis Khan, controlling much of Iran and Iran
new Il-khan ruler. tried to use paper money, fell into depression. wars erupted; ruled over Iran, adopted Islam.
Timurids (Jagadai Khanate)
Khanate of central Asia lead by Timur
Adviser to Ghazan, the ill khan ruler, who converted to Islam based on hims advice.
Prince of Novgorod. He bargained with the Mongols, submitting to the Golden Horde in 1240, and being named the king of princes in return.
capital of Ming dynasty, moved from Nanjing
During this dynasty, sailing expeditions reached as far as Africa. The voyages brought back a lor of fancy goods from overseas, but the main purpose of the voyages was to establish ties with foreign governments.
founder of the ming dynasty
led rebellion against the yuan dynasty
Reign period of Zhu Di (1360-1424), the third emperor of the Ming Empire (r. 1403-1424).Sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's borders to trade and travel (355)
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
The 'divine wind,' which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281. (p. 365)