a crop that is grown to be sold rather than to be consumed by the farmers and their families
the inner most part of Earth, made of solid iron and surrounded by a layer of iron
petroleum as it comes out of the ground and before it has be refined or processed into useful products
the middle layer of Earth that lies between the core and the lithosphere
the moving of water from Earth's surface into the soil
any rock that does not allow liquid or gas to flow through it
a resource that takes so long to form that it can't be replaced. Oil, which takes millions of years to form, is such a resource.
Oil that has been discovered but remains unused in the ground
- Molten or liquid rock that lies beneath the earths crust
The hard outer layer of Earth
The movement of plates below Earth's surface
A mountain that is created by a folding of Earth's crust
A mountain created when a block of Earth's crust tilts upward as a result of tectonic movement
Fault Block Mountain
Molten or liquid rock that flows out of a volcano
The flat area around a river that is cover with sediment as a result of frequent flooding
- in the direction that the wind is blowing
a tax on goods l\that cross country borders
the forces that divide people and countries
the forces that unite people and countries
the number of deaths a year for every 1000 people
the number of births a year for every 1000 people
a group of countries that work together to promote trade with one another
the average number of children that a woman in a given population will have in her lifetime
Total Fertility Rate
a total fertility rate needed for a population to replace itself
average age that a person in a given population can expect to live
the number of old and young people who don't work compared with the working age population
a sudden increase in the birth rate of a population
a system that allows for the year round watering of crops
the area drained by a river and its tributaries. These tributaries are the smaller streams that flow into the main river. Rain falling anywhere in a river basin will eventually flow into the main river.
the process by which land becomes more and more dry until it turns into desert. Climate change, human activities, or both may cause this.
land that is not well suited for growing crops
a great sea of tall sand dunes
the junction of two rivers
a large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply
a triangular tract of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river, typically where it diverges into several outlets
The stream or streams that make up the beginnings of a river
The process by which a liquid, such as water, turns into a vapor or gas
pollution that starts in one country and goes to other countries
To release of harmful substances into the environment as the result of an accident.
The release of harmful substances into the environment as a result of everyday activities
Government policy of separating people according to race.
Separation of one people from another, such as by race.
Resolving past differences, forgiving and moving forward. In SA the Truth and Reconciliation Commission sought to resolve tensions and antagonism between blacks and whites based on years of apartheid
Traditional Islamic Law
A system in which one country rules another area as a colony. The ruling country controls trade with its colony for it's own benefit.
A group of people who share a common language.
A variety of people from different ethnic groups.
Exchange of goods and services without government control.
A very small business with few or no employees.
A seasonal wind
The weight of the atmosphere pressing down on any point of the earths surface
The precipitation that occurs when moist air rises up the side of a mountain
The dry area on the downwind side of a mountain
The scattering of chemicals in clouds to bring about rain
The use of technology to move and process information
To hire someone outside of a country to do work that was once done inside the company
All of the people that are available for work.
The average cost of basic necessities
Cost of Living
The overall level of comfort and well being in a country
Standard of Living
Unable to read and write
The loss of well educated people
Investment by a person or company in another country
Severe food shortage that results in widespread hunger
Condition when a population in a country doesn't grow but remains stable
Zero Population Growth
Annual rate of population growth
Rate of Natural Increase
The length of time it takes for a population to double
Purchasing and using up of goods and services by consumers
Land suitable for growing crops
Where people live in a country whether crowded together in cities or spread out in the country
The population of a country divided by its total land area.
Arithmetic Population Density
The population of a country divided by its arable land area
Psysiologic Population Density
The amount of time traveling to and from work
A family of parents, children and grandparents, and sometimes more distant relative
A family made up of parents and their children.
An area where earthquakes are likely (often where tectonic plates meet)
Building methods to make structures safer during earthquakes
Earthquake- resistant construction techniques