LEADERS & GROUPS (OCR History A2: African American Civil Rights)
|Booker T. Washington|| 1881-1915|
Ran the Tuskegee Institute, gave the Atlanta Speech, accommodation, organised the Negro Business League.
|Ida B. Wells|| 1884-1931|
Sued the railroad company, public opposition to lynching, women's rights.
|W.E.B. Du Bois|| 1903-1963|
Founded the Niagara Movement (1905), founded the NAACP.
|Marcus Garvey|| 1917-1925|
Founded UNIA (1917), blacks taking control of their own affairs, Black Eagle Star Steamship, open air parades, military style leadership.
|NAACP|| 1909- present|
Both black and white supporters, peaceful, focus on legal aspects, constitutional organisation, significant long-term role.
Campaigned for equal rights and independence of blacks rather than absorbing into the melting pot, encouraged to develop their own institutions, etc.
|Thurgood Marshall|| 1940-1993|
Black lawyer winning nearly all the NAACP cases and was the first black Justice of the Supreme Court.
|Martin Luther King Jr.|| 1954-1968|
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955), Birmingham Protest (1963), "I have a dream" speech (1963), sit-ins, freedom rides, peaceful, desegregation, political rights. View changed later on.
|Malcolm X|| 1960-65|
Member of the Nation of Islam, violent, economic and social rights, wrote in a journal, gave speeches, black superiority, views later changed.
|Black Panthers|| 1966-1976|
Economic emphasis, influenced by Black Power and Malcolm X, had a 10-point programme, violent, military style.