when dissolved increases the anount of hydronium ions
When dissolved increases the amount of hydroxide ions
exponential scale that is used to measure the concentrations of hydronium ions of a solution. Sclae 1-14, 1-6 is acidic, 8-14 is basic.
Written to the right of the arrow
Written to the left of the arrow
more complex substance breaks down into simple parts
type of reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form more complex substance
single uncombined element replaces another in a compound
a type of reaction in which parts of two compounds switch places to form two new compounds.
when energy is aborbed, electrical energy
where energy is released, often causes product to feel hot.
found on either reactant or product side, means "plus" if on reactant side and "and" if on the product side
an arrow;reads as "yield"
a big number in front of the substances that indicates the quantity of the molecules.
the letters (s), (g), and (L)
solid, gas, and liquid, describe physical states of the substance.
between metal and nonmetal
between non metal and non metal
substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or base
reaction between acids and bases
an area of land that drains all the water on it into one body of water
water that is underground
nitrates and phosphates
a poisonous substance that is a product of a metabolic activities of a living organism and is unstable and cabale of inducing intobody formations
a clarity of a body of water
the levels of oxygen in the water
most common water pollution, water that does not soak into the groudn but instead runs along the surface.
surface that water cannot seep into
surface that water can seep into
point source pollution
pollution that does have a specific source (toxins dumped into the river by a factory)
non-point source pollution
pollution that does not have a specific source(ex. oil dripping out of cars on highways then is washed into a river)
sewage that can be purified
clean wastewater that comes out of a treatment plant.
the black screens put up around construction sites to prevent erosion.
natural preventers of erosion, like plants on the banks of rivers that hold the soil in.
Environmental Protection Agency.
96.5% of water on earth
3.5% of water on earth
ice caps and glaciers
1.74% of water on earth
1.7% of water on earth
Ground ice, Lakes, Atmosphere, Swamps.
0.06& of water on earth
Top Three pollutants
nutrients, dirt and bacteria
having an unsymmetrical arrangement of atoms in a molecule
polar covalent bond
a type of covalent in witch electrons are shared unequally
a molecule that has oppositely charged ends
weak attractive interaction
unlike molecules sticking together (water sticks to a container)
when molecules stick to themselves (puddle of water)
The ability of water to flow against gravity in a thin tube or in a porous material like paper. If the diameter of the tube is smaller, then the combination of adhesion and cohesion with water will lift the liquid.
particles that are completely surrounded by particles of a solvent
substance that does the dissolving
substance that is dissolved
a mixture of substances that are not dissolved in each other.
a mixture of substances where one is dissolved in another.
a substance that can dissolve
a substance that cannot dissolve
a solution that contains a small amount of solute
a solution that contains a large amount of solute.
solute that falls to the bottom of a saturated solution
the concentration of a saturated solution (the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in 100 mL of solvent)
a solution in which more more solute can be dissolved in the solvent.
the solvent is evaporated, leaving behind the crystallized solute
Hydrogen bonds from on the surface of water, creating a thin net of molecules (ex. water droplets stacking on a penny, needle floating on water)
water adheres to the side of a container, appearing to crawl up the sides.it also coheres itself, dragging up the water molecules. This creates a slightly u-shaped surface (when viewed form the sides).
this is how water from the earth gets to the tops of the trees. The meniscus process happens in the very thin tubes in the plant.
distillation that separates two liquids that boil at different temperatures (uses 4 test tubes)
distillation separates a solvent from the solute without losing solvent (uses 1 test tube; solute left behind in round-bottom flask)
the temperature at which a substance begins to evaporate
a substance turning from liquid to gaseous form (Ex: water-->water vapor)
a substance turning from gaseous to liquid form (Ex: water vapor -->water)
a black goopy liquid made of hydrocarbons; when refined, it makes up things such as diesel fuel, gasoline, asphalt, and petroleum jelly
a compound made of carbon and hydrogen
the liquid produced after a suspension is filtered
separation method for 2 substances that are both soluble in water but have different solubilities at higher temperatures. Substance X has a high solubility at 70 degrees as opposed to 20 degrees, and Substance Y's solubility relatively the same from 20 to 70 degrees. The solution is heated to 70 degrees; a lot of substance X dissolves and substance Y is left behind. The solution is then filtered, substance Y being left behind in the filter and substance X going through with the filtrate. The filtrate is then placed in an ice bath, where the temperature drops and substance X precipitates. The solution is then filtered again, and the precipitated substance X stays in the filter
separates two substances that vary in density; both are added to water, one sinks to the bottom while the other floats on the surface. The one on the surface is scraped off and then the water is poured off.
separates substances that vary in suspendability. The mixture is scooped up into a pan and the run under water. The small particles are swept away and the harder ones sink to the bottom.
separates substances that vary in solubility. One is soluble in the solvent and the other is insoluble. The mixture is poured through a filter; the insoluble solid is left in the filter. The solvent is then evaporated.
acid test, crystal shape, density, flammability, solubility in water, alcohol, boiling point, exact solubility in room temperature water, qualitative properties.
Types of Observations
qualitative (uses words), quantitave (numbers)