Global Cultures Final Exam

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Includes terms on Global Cultures Final Exam study guide

Monogamy

Marriage with only one person at a time

Polygamy

The condition or practice of having more than one spouse at one time

Polytheism

The worship of or belief in more than one god

Patriarchal

a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the male line

Matrilineal

a system in which one belongs to one's mother's lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line

Geneva Convention

A set of international standards of conduct for treating prisoners of war, established in 1929

Jews

followers of Judaism, claim Jerusalem as the Holy city. Jews were massacred by the Nazi party during World War II

King Henry VIII

Founder of the church of England and ruled England from 1509-1547. He broke from the Catholic church because the Pope wouldn't grant him a divorce from his many wives. Because his wives didn't give birth to a male heir, he executed them.

Treaty of Versailles

imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans and is considered a cause of World War II.

Tutsi

Minority tribe in Rwanda. Had lost control of the Rwandan government and were the primary target of genocide.

Mestizo

A person of mixed racial ancestry, especially of mixed European and Native American ancestry

Metis

any person of mixed ancestry; offspring of American Indians and a white person, especially one of french ancestry.

Bosnian Genocide

refers to either the genocide committed by Bosnian Serb forces in Srebrenica in 1995 or the ethnic cleansing campaign that took place throughout areas controlled by the Bosnian Serb Army during the 1992-1995 Bosnian War. This included the killing of more than 8,000 Bosnian Muslims as well as the mass expulsion of another 25,000-30,000 Bosnian Muslims

Ethnic Cleansing

The systematic elimination of an ethnic group or groups from a region or society, as by deportation, forced emigration, or genocide.

Genocide

the deliberate destruction of a group of people

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church lead by Martin Luther and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

Boycott

a group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies

Gandhi

political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for independence; best known for his non-violent protests

Holocaust

the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators

Euro

the official currency of the European Union

Adam Smith and Mercantilism

Mercantilism is trade surplus to create a powerful/wealthy country. Adam Smith developed the idea of free enterprise, and was critical of mercantilism.

Arabic word for God

Allah

Brazil's Main Language

Portuguese

Armenian Genocide

Assault carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.

Nuremberg Trials

Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes

Coolie

an unskilled laborer employed cheaply, especially one brought from Asia.

Potlatch

a competitive ceremonial activity among certain North American Indians, esp. the Haida, involving a lavish distribution of gifts and the destruction of property to emphasize the wealth and status of the chief or clan

Hara Kari

Japanese samurai ritual suicide

Apartheid

An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites

Five Pillars of Faith

the essential duties of Muslims must fulfill; faith, prayer, charity, fasting and pilgrimage

Indulgences

Paid pardons from punishment for sin under the Catholic Church

Pope Urban

responsible for the launch of the first Crusade, claiming that God wills the christians to retake the Holy Land

Monotheism

the belief in one god

Maya

a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.

Haida

A Native American people inhabiting the Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia, Canada, and Prince of Wales Island in Alaska. They are know for the division in the tribe, Ravens and Eagles, and the potlatch ceremony.

Confucius

Chinese philosopher and teacher of ethics.His doctrines were compiled after his death under the title The Analects of Confucius. He is the founder of Confucianism.

White Man's Burden

Rudyard Kipling wrote the poem this poem which states that it's the european man's job to civilize the uncivilized

Cottage Industry

Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.

Factory System

system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency

Chin Dynasty

unified China; standardized roads, axle widths, money, writing; first example of censorship through book burnings, built Great Wall, name "China" comes form this dynasty

OAS

Organization of American States, an international governmental organization formed by the states of North and South America formed to promote democracy, economic cooperation, and human rights

Macchu Picchu

It was a major religious city in the Inca Empire in high altitude. The city was built around 1450 and was discovered only in 1911.

Atacama Desert

one of the driest regions in the world, found in South America

Incas

A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru and their main language was Quechua. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered this Empire.

Ziggurats

a multi-storied temple tower from ancient Mesopotamia

Torah

Holy book of Judaism

Koran

Holy book of Islam

Dynasty

a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family

Indian Caste System

Includes Brahmins (priests), Kshatryas (rulers and warriors),
Vaisyas (commoners, farmers, craftsmen, and traders), Sudras (laborers and servants), and the "Untouchables" who were below the caste system. A person's caste is determined by their parent's caste and it is almost impossible to move up.

Martin Luther

German theologian who led the Reformation, writer of the 95 theses, creater of the Protestant faith

"Iron Curtain" and Berlin Wall

symbolized the ideological fighting and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1989. The most notable of the Iron Curtains was the dividing of East Berlin and West Berlin with the Berlin Wall.

Cold War

This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years. There were no deaths in this war, but the Cuban Missile Crisis could have started a nuclear war.

Deforestation

The process of stripping the land of its trees; usually for farmland

Quechua

the language of the Incas

Rural

of or relating to the country and the people who live there

Chivalry

Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages

Cuba

a communist state in the Caribbean on the island of Cuba

Viracocha

The supreme being of the Incas: a storm god and a sun god.

Pampas

the vast grassy plains of southern South America, especially in Argentina

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries

Constantine

Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians. He was also the founder of Constantinople.

Romulus

mythical founder of Rome; twin of Remus, which he killed

Alexander the Great

son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world- set up cities named Alexandria

Sparta

Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was run like a military state. It competed with Athens for dominance- Women had more power in Sparta compared to women in Athens

Athens

Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture; enemy of Sparta; Women had less rights

Charlemagne

King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of literature and learning

Sunnis and Shiites

Split in Islam. They disagree in many issues, but the greatest disagreement between the two groups is Muhummad's successor.

The Helots

class of unfree peasants in Spartan society, who may be defined as state-owned serfs.

Feudalism

a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land and in return required service in army, labor, and money from the vassal

Original peoples of Europe

may include the Romans and the Barbarians

European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members; includes 27 states that share the euro

Renaissance

Means "Rebirth of Knowledge", The humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe. Popular painters during that time include Da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

Eskimo

Means, "Raw Flesh Eater", a member of an indigenous people of Greenland, northern canada, alaska, and northeastern Siberia, characterized by short, stocky build and light-brown complexion.

Roman Church

Church established in western Europe during the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages with its head being the bishop of Rome or pope.

Animism

the belief that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural objects

Imperialism

a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries

Line of Demarcation

Imaginary north to south line running down the middle of the Atlantic and granted Spain the west of the line and Portugal the east

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